2. 13. epicenter-
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14. Earthquake-
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15. tsunamis -
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Notes review
I. The Crust
a. Is the outer zone of the earth made out of rock
b. Always changing
II. Proofs that the earth is always changing
a. Deformed rock strata-
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b. Displaced Fossils –
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c. Subsidence-
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d. Bench mark
-_____________________________________________________
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III. What is the difference between horizontal and vertical displacement/
a. _____________________________________________________
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IV. Areas of crustal activies
a. Earthquakes and volcanic eruption usually occur
____________________________________________________.
b. Usually the _____________ ocean
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3. c. These zones mark _____________________________________.
V. Earthquake
a. Is a sudden trembling or shaking of the ground caused by
movement along a break or fault in the rock realeasing the stress
build up in the ground
b. When an earthquake occurs ___________________ waves move
in all different direction from the focus
i. Focus-__________________________________________
ii. Epicenter
-_______________________________________________
________________________________________________
iii. Seismographs
-_______________________________________________
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_
VI. Waves OF Earthquakes
a. There are several different types of waves
i. P Waves – also called Compress waves
1. ____________________________teh same direction
the wave is moving
2. Pass through anything
3. Highest velocity - __________________________
ii. S Waves – also called secondary waves
1. cause earth to vibrate in _____________________
2. _________________________________________
iii. Lwaves – Long Period waves
VII. How do we measure Earthquake strength
a. Mercalli scale -
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b. Richter scale
i. Measures the amount of energy released by the earth
moving
ii. Goes from ___________________________
VIII. Facts
a. Both volcanoes and Earthquakes are hazaerdous (dangerous) to
living things
b. Fires are common after an Earthquake do to broken gas lines
etc…..
IX. Tsunamis
a. Large underwater earthquakes
i. Can occur after a reg earthquake
ii. DON’T GO NEAR COAST VERY DANGEROUS
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4. X. How do we use a graph ?
Example Question # 1
If the P wave hits a location at 7 min 30 seconds where is this location?
Step #1 Locate 7 Minutes 30 Seconds
Step # 2 Take a straight piece of paper and draw a line until you hit the P wave
Step # 3 Using a ruler or your piece of paper draw a straight line down
Step 4 The line hits the distance at 5.2 multiply that by 1000 = 5,200
Answer = 5, 200
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5. Example Question #2
An earthquake occurred at 5:00:00 a.m. According to the Earth Science
Reference Tables, at what time would the P-wave reach a seismic station
3,000 kilometers from the epicenter?
STEP #1 - LOCATE 3,OOO Kilometers on the graph
Step #2 Move up until you hit the p wave
Step #3 the move to the left and mark down how many minutes it
took the earthquake to hit the location
In our case it is around 5 minutes and 40 seconds
Step # 4 Add 5:40 minutes to 5 am = 5:05 and 40 Seconds
Example question #3
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6. If the difference between the p wave and S wave is 6 minutes 20 seconds, how
far away is the location from the epicenter?
Step # 1 Put a piece of paper and measure 6minutes 45 seconds
Step #2 Drag the marked index card up the P wave line until your marking hits
the s wave and the bottom of your card or paper is on the P wave
Step #3 Draw a straight line down and mark the distance in our example it goes
to 5 x1000 = 5,000 km
Example # 4
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7. If it takes the S wave 17 minutes to reach Position x How long would it take the
p-wave to get to position x ?
Step # 1 Locate 17 minutes
Step #2 Using a piece of paper or an index card draw a straight line from the 17
until you hit the S wave
Step # 3 draw a straight line down from the point of the S wave until the distance
number
Step #4 Mark off the number ( remember each box is 200 km)
Our answer is 6,000
Example 6 ****
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8. Where is the Epicenter? NYS Lab
Step 1 Look at the graph above it shops three different seismograms at three
different locations The first set of zigzags with the P is the P wave the second set
and larger is the S wave. Subtract the p wave time from the S wave time.
San Jose New York San Francisco
P wave = 21
S wave began 30:30
30:30
- 21:00
8:30 Minutes
Step #2 Take each time difference and do the same thing you did in example #3
and determine the distance for each location.
San Jose New York San Francisco
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9. Step #3 On the bottom of your map below there are measurements
using your protractor measure out the distance .
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10. Step #4 Without moving your measurement put the point on the correct location
and make a circle
Step # 5 Do this for each location
Step 6 the place where the circles meet mark with an X (or if there is a large over
gap color it in and them mark it.
You are done the X is your epicenter GOOD JOB!!!!!!!!!!!
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11. Example #5
Question: If it takes the S wave 18 minute to get to location Y, How long does it
take the p wave to get to the same location?
Step # 1 Locate 18 minutes
Step #2 Using a piece of paper or an index card draw a straight line from the 18
until you hit the S wave
Step # 3 Then draw using a piece of paper or a card a straight line down from the
point of the S wave until the you HIT THE P WAVE
Step #4 From the point on the P wave draw a straight line to the left until you hit
the time line
Step #4 Mark off the time to the nearest 00:10
Our answer is !0 minutes
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