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Vlsi, vhdl & embedded systems
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Vlsi, vhdl & embedded systems

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  • 1. An Industrial Training Report. By: Ritesh Shrivastav BT/EC/11/038 VLSI, VHDL & Embedded Systems Ritesh Shrivasta v Digitally signed by Ritesh Shrivastav DN: cn=Ritesh Shrivastav gn=Ritesh Shrivastav c=Nepal l=NP o=Ritesh e=ritesh.shrv@gmail.com Reason: I am the author of this document Location: Date: 2013-09-18 01:42+05:30
  • 2. Contents • Introduction to VLSI • VLSI Design Flow • Hardware Description Language • FPGAs and EDA Tools • Project on “Traffic Light Controller” • Introduction to Embedded Systems & Robotics • Project on “Line Following Robot”
  • 3. Introduction to VLSI • An IC is a chip or die where many circuit components and the wiring that connects them are manufactured. • A VLSI system integrates millions of electronic components in a very small area.
  • 4. Generations of IC •1963 •<100 Electronic ComponentsSSI •1970 •100-3000 Electronic ComponentsMSI •1975 •3000-30,000 Electronic ComponentsLSI •1980 •Up to Billion Electronic ComponentsVLSI •1990 •Beyond Billion Electronic ComponentsULSI
  • 5. Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) • An FPGA is a semiconductor device that can be reprogrammed after manufacturing. • Applications of FPGAs are: • Computer Hardware Emulation • Broadcast • Wireless Communication, etc.
  • 6. FPGA Design • FPGAs can be reprogrammed to desired application or functionality requirements after manufacturing. This feature distinguishes FPGAs from Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), which are custom manufactured for specific design tasks.
  • 7. VLSI Design Flow Idea System Specifications Design Architecture •Logic Design and Verification RTL Coding •Circuit Design RTL Verification •Circuit Verification Synthesis •Layout Verification Fabrication and Testing Foundry IC Chip
  • 8. VLSI Design Flow (contd.) • Design Architecture: • Designers can use different abstraction levels for VLSI design:
  • 9. VLSI Design Flow (contd.) RTL Coding: HDLs • Stands for “Hardware Description Language”. • A language that can describe the functionality and timing of the hardware. • Support for hardware concurrency and time frame are two main features that distinguishes HDLs from other programming languages.
  • 10. Uses and Requirement of HDL • It provides with concurrency constructs to simulate circuit behavior. • Simulation for verification and synthesis. • It allows textual representation of how data flows between register and how design processes them.
  • 11. EDA Tools • Stands for “Electronic Design Automation”. • Commonly used EDA tools are: Xilinx ISE, ModelSim, Cadence, etc. • Used to compile, simulate and synthesize the code written in HDL.
  • 12. Introduction to VHDL • Stands for “Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language” (VHSIC HDL). • It is an IEEE and ANSI STANDARD; therefore, models described in this language are portable. • Supports three design description methods and can work with any combination of them i.e., it allows mixed type modelling.
  • 13. Design Description Domains • Designers use different abstraction models for circuit design: • Structural Model: • Set of Primitive Components • Primitive components are interconnected to form larger components. • Behavioral Model: • Components are defined by their I/O response. • The components can themselves be implemented in many ways. Gajski’s Chart
  • 14. VHDL Design Example: 2x1 MUXentity multiplexer is port(se1: in std_logic; d: in std_logc_vector(0 to 1); z: out std_logc); end entity multiplexer; architecture mux_str of multiplexer is component NOT1 port( in1: in std_logic; out1 : out std_logic); end component; component AND2 port (in1, in2 : in std_logic; out1: out std_logic); end component; component OR2 port (in1, in2: in std_logc; out1: out std_logic); end component; begin signal se1_n: std_logic; signal n: std_logic_vector (0 to 1); g0: NOT1 port map ( se1, se1_n); g1: AND2 port map ( se1, d(0), n(0)); g2: AND2 port map (se1_n, d(1), n(1)); g4: OR2 port map (n(0), n(1), z); end mux_str;
  • 15. VHDL Design Flow Initial Design Entry Logic Optimization Technology Mapping Placement Routing Programming Unit Configured FPGA
  • 16. Traffic Light Controller The aim of the project is to design a Traffic Light Controller using VHDL and implement the same in FPGA.
  • 17. Traffic Light Controller (contd.)
  • 18. Traffic Light Controller (contd.) State Diagram:Traffic Light States
  • 19. Traffic Light Controller (contd.) Simulation Chart
  • 20. Introduction to Embedded Systems • An Embedded system is a special purpose computer system designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, often with real time computing constraints. • In an embedded system, there is only one application software that is typically burned into ROM. Example: Printer, Keyboard, etc.
  • 21. Peripherals necessary for Microcontrollers / Microprocessor • CPU: Central Processing Unit • Input /Output • Bus: Address bus & Data bus • Memory: RAM & ROM • Timer • Interrupt • Serial Port • Parallel Port
  • 22. Microcontroller v/s Microprocessor One single chip Ex: Atmel’s Atmega XX Series Different chips connected by bus. Ex: Intel x86/x64, Motorola 680x0, etc.
  • 23. Line Following Robot • Real life application of an LFR: • Automated cars running on roads with embedded magnets. • Guidance system for industrial robots moving on shop floor etc.
  • 24. Line Following Robot (contd.) • Hardware Components Required: • Infra-red LED • Photo Diode • The kit containing the microcontroller, motors, chassis and wheels. • Software Tools used: • CVAVR for compiling code. • AVR Studio to burn the “.hex” file from CVAVR to the Atmega 16 via USB Programmer. Infra-Red Sensor
  • 25. Line Following Robot (contd.) • Final Outcome: