About the agriculture
The word agriculture is derived from Latin words
ager or agri meaning soil and culture meaning
The science and art of cultivation on soil , raising
crops and rearing livestock it is called farming or
History of farming
Agriculture involving domestication of plants and animals was developed at least
10,000 years ago, although even earlier people began altering plant and animal
communities for their own benefit through other means such as fire-stick
farming. Agriculture has undergone significant developments since the time of the
earliest cultivation. The Fertile Crescent of Western Asia, Egypt and India were sites of
the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in
the wild. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern
China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea, parts of India and several regions of
theAmericas Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers,
and pesticides were developed long ago but have made great strides in the past century.
The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major
breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints.
In the past century, agriculture in the developed nations, and to a lesser extent in the
developing world, has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the replacement of
human labor by synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding,
and mechanization. The recent history of agriculture has been closely tied with a range of
political issues including water pollution, biofuels, genetically modified
organisms, tariffs, and farm subsidies. In recent years, there has been a backlash against
the external environmental effects of mechanized agriculture, and increasing support for
the organic movement and sustainable agriculture .
Types of agriculture
Sericulture - commercial rearing of silk
Pisciculture – Breeding of fish in specially
constructed tanks and ponds.
Viticulture - cultivation of grapes
Horticulture – Growing vegetabales ,
flowers and fruits for commercial use .
Types of farming
This type of farming is practised to meet the needs of
the farmer’s family . Traditionally low levels of
technology and household labour are used to
produced on small output
Classification of subsistence farming
Commercial farming crops are grown and animals
are reared for sale in markeyt the area cultivated and
the amount of capital used is large .
Classification of commercial farming