Origin of the word Robot
• The word robot was first used more than 60
years ago by Karel Capek, a Czechoslovakian
writer, in his play R.U.R., or Rossum’s
• He derived robot from the Czech word
robota, which means “drudgery” or
• Later in a letter written by him to Oxford
English Dictionary, he is reported to have
quoted his brother Josef Capek as the actual
G. Walter’s Robot –The first Robot
• 1948, 1953
• A wheeled machine with motors
• Two vacuum tubes
• Moved toward light if moderate
• Avoided bright light
Definition of Robotics
• “ A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator
designed to move material, parts, tools, or
specialized devices through various programmed
motions for the performance of a variety of tasks”.
• The science of building and programming robots.
Robots in the Media
• Robots have been presented in the media since the 1927
What is a Robot?What is a Robot?
• A machine whose behavior can be programmed …
• Then, is a VCR a robot?
• Is a tethered machine a robot?
• Surprisingly, there is no exact definition of a robot
• Today, people use ‘robot’ for almost any machine
designed to be clever
Three Laws of Robotics
• Law 1: A robot may not injure a human
being, or, through inaction, allow a
human being to come to harm
• Law 2: A robot must obey the orders
given it by human beings except where
such orders would conflict with the First
• Law 3: A robot must protect its own
existence as long as such protection
does not conflict with the First or
Automation vs. robots
• Automation –Machinery designed to carry out a specific task
– Bottling machine
– Paint sprayer
• Robots – machinery designed
to carry out a variety of tasks
– Pick and place arms
– Mobile robots
– Computer Numerical Control
because they can
designed for a
Types of robots
• Pick and place
– Moves items between points
– Moves along a programmable path
– Employs sensors for feedback
A SCARA robot (Selective
Compliant Articulated Robot
Arm): A pick-and-place robot
x-y-z positioning (Adept
Continuous path control
a six-axis industrial robot
but an additional $200K
is often spent for tooling
Pick and Place
• Moves items from one point to another
• Does not need to follow a specific path between points
• Uses include loading and unloading machines, placing
components on circuit boards, and moving parts off conveyor
A cartesian robot for picking and placing circuits on
Continuous path control
• Moves along a specific path
• Uses include welding, cutting, machining parts.
Robotic seam welding
• Uses sensors for feedback.
• Closed-loop robots use
sensors in conjunction with
actuators to gain higher
accuracy – servo motors.
• Uses include mobile robotics,
telepresence, search and
rescue, pick and place with
Kinematics and dynamics of robots
• Degrees of freedom—number of
–Rotation-- 3 independent axes
–2D motion = 3 degrees of freedom: 2
translation, 1 rotation
–3D motion = 6 degrees of freedom:
3 translation, 3 rotation
Kinematics and dynamics (cont.)
– Simple joints
• prismatic—sliding joint, e.g., square cylinder in
• revolute—hinge joint
– Compound joints
• ball and socket = 3 revolute joints
• round cylinder in tube = 1 prismatic, 1 revolute
– multipedal (multi-legged with a sequence of
Robots forRobots for 3D3D JobsJobs
Tasks which are:
• Space exploration
• chemical spill cleanup
• disarming bombs
• disaster cleanup
– Boring and/or repetitive
• Welding car frames
• part pick and place
• manufacturing parts.
– High precision or high speed
• Electronics testing
• precision machining.
• A mobile computer situated in the real
world interacting with the environment
through sensors and actuators in order
to perform various intelligent tasks
without constant attention.without constant attention.
• Real robots do not need joy stickReal robots do not need joy stick
remote controls!remote controls!
Fundamental Components of AutonomousFundamental Components of Autonomous
• A brain (or brains)A brain (or brains)
• Body: physical chassis that holdsBody: physical chassis that holds
other piecesother pieces
• Actuators: allows to move.Actuators: allows to move.
Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps,Motors, hydraulic pistons, lamps,
• Power sourcePower source
Sensors of Human
• Equilibrium: Balance
Robot Sensor Types
• Passive Sensors (does not require power
• Active Sensors (require power supply)
• Better known as SWORDS.
• The Pentagon's research arm,
the Defense Advanced
Research Projects Agency, also
recently awarded contracts to
aid research of robots that one
day could be dropped into
combat from airplanes and
others meant to scale walls
using electrostatic energy —
also known as "static cling."
• Honda's "ASIMO" Rings
• Opening Bell at the NYSE
• February 15, 2002
More Humanoid Robots: SONY QRIO
• IREX: Seminar and exhibits
How to develop Intelligent Robots?
• The most difficult task
• Developing intelligent and adaptive software is the key
• And even better is that we ec engineers design and fabricate
faster , better , reliable systems on chips and such other
components giving the robotics field the wings it needs to fly.
Why I like Robotics?
• Multi-disciplinary learning: all STEM (Science, Technology,
Engineering, and Math) subjects
• Develops critical thinking
• Provides co-operative learning environment
• Teaches real-life lessons, not virtual fantasy
• MIT’s Kismet: a robot
which exhibits expressions,
e.g., happy, sad, surprise,
• Haptics--tactile sensing
• Other kinematic mechanisms,
• e.g. snake motion
• Robots that can learn
A snake robot (OCRobotics)
• Robots make life easier.
• They have variety of applications.
• Masses consider they are better as slaves
• Mass production will be easily achieved.
• Unemployment will increase.