 Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and
environment friendly source of energy.
 Oldest energy technique known to m...
 The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in
Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882.
 In India, Jamshed ji Tata bui...
 With the liberalization of the economy, the Government of
India has been encouraging and invited private sector for
inve...
rank country Mw station
1 china 20300 Three Gorges Dam
2 Paraguay 14000 Itaipu dam
3 venenzula 10200 Guri dam
4 brazil 837...
 Dams
The dam is made on a river to collect water. Whenever it rains, the water is collected into the dam so it serves
as...
1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a
very high standard.
2. The high cost of dam construction m...
 Conventional (dams)
Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and...
1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a
constant rate.
2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice ...
bibliography
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.technologystudent.com
 NAME –Raghav Chawla
 CLASS-(X-A)
 ROLL NO.-31
 SENT BY (ID)-abcde.chawla@gmail.com
 DATE –(10.06.2014)
 TIME -11:59...
Physics hhw
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Physics hhw

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Physics hhw

  1. 1.  Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environment friendly source of energy.  Oldest energy technique known to mankind for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.  Contributes around 22% of the world electricity supply generated.  Maximum benefits in minimum time.  Offers the most fastest economical means to enhance power supply, improve living standards, stimulate industrial growth and enhance agriculture with the least environmental impact and without heavy transmission losses .  Due to less transmission losses there is a reduction in distribution cost as well
  2. 2.  The first hydroelectric power dam in the world was built in Appleton, Wisconsin in 1882.  In India, Jamshed ji Tata built the first hydroelectric power dam in the Western Ghats of Maharashtra in the early 1900s to supply power to Bombay’s Cotton and Textile Mills.  He took the British Government’s permission to build dams, namely the Andhra, Sirowata, Valvan and Mulshi hydel dams in the Western Ghats to generate electricity using high rainfalls in the hills as storage.
  3. 3.  With the liberalization of the economy, the Government of India has been encouraging and invited private sector for investment in the power sector.  A conducive policy environment has been created by modifying the Electricity Act. The new Electricity Act-2003 deals with the laws relating to generation, transmission, distribution, trading and use of electricity.  The Act has specific provisions for the promotion of renewable energy including hydropower and cogeneration. It has been made mandatory that every state regulatory commission would specify a percentage of electricity to be purchased from renewable by a distribution license
  4. 4. rank country Mw station 1 china 20300 Three Gorges Dam 2 Paraguay 14000 Itaipu dam 3 venenzula 10200 Guri dam 4 brazil 8370 Tucurui dam 5 United states 6809 Grand coulee dam
  5. 5.  Dams The dam is made on a river to collect water. Whenever it rains, the water is collected into the dam so it serves as a water reservoir. The potential energy for further work is generated by the water level difference between the dams and the turbines because the water level in the dams is very high. Dams also control the water flow through penstocks.  Turbines The next step is to convert this kinetic energy of water into mechanical energy. The water flows from a height throw the penstocks which are the channelled vessels to the turbines which have blades. The falling water has enough kinetic energy that when they strike hard with the blades of the turbines, they start spinning which means that the kinetic energy is converted into mechanical energy. The turbines resemble a lot with the windmills in which wind energy is used instead of water. But the turbines use potential and mechanical energy of falling water to convert into work.  Generators The shafts of the turbines convert the mechanical energy into electric energy. Basically, the generators work on the principle of magnets which is that when you pass a magnet near a conductor, electric current flows through it.  Rotor and stator The rotor having field pole rotates on a specific speed. When it rotates it passes the field poles across the stator to make sure that it has the same effect of electric field. The water should keep on moving constantly to make sure that the amount of electricity produced is great. Static water cannot generate electricity.  Transmission lines The electricity via power lines is transferred to substation which provides it to the consumers.
  6. 6. 1. Dams are extremely expensive to build and must be built to a very high standard. 2. The high cost of dam construction means that they must operate for many decades to become profitable. 3. The flooding of large areas of land means that the natural environment is destroyed. 4. People living in villages and towns that are in the valley to be flooded, must move out. This means that they lose their farms and businesses. In some countries, people are forcibly removed so that hydro-power schemes can go ahead. 5. The building of large dams can cause serious geological damage. For example, the building of the Hoover Dam in the USA triggered a number of earth quakes and has depressed the earth’s surface at its location. 6. Although modern planning and design of dams is good, in the past old dams have been known to be breached (the dam gives under the weight of water in the lake). This has led to deaths and flooding.
  7. 7.  Conventional (dams) Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator. The power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. The amount of potential energy in water is proportional to the head. A large pipe (the "penstock") delivers water to the turbine.  Pumped-storage This method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir. When there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes currently provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storage is not an energy source, and appears as a negative number in listings.  Run-of-the-river Run-of-the-river hydroelectric stations are those with small or no reservoir capacity, so that the water coming from upstream must be used for generation at that moment, or must be allowed to bypass the dam. In the United States, run of the river hydropower could potentially provide 60,000 MW (about 13.7% of total use in 2011 if continuously available).  Tide A tidal power plant makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, and if conditions permit construction of reservoirs, can also be dispatch able to generate power during high demand periods. Less common types of hydro schemes use water's kinetic energy or undammed sources such as undershot waterwheels. Tidal power is viable in a relatively small number of locations around the world. In Great Britain, there are eight sites that could be developed, which have the potential to generate 20% of the electricity used in 2012.  Underground An underground power station makes use of a large natural height difference between two waterways, such as a waterfall or mountain lake. An underground tunnel is constructed to take water from the high reservoir to the generating hall built in an underground cavern near the lowest point of the water tunnel and a horizontal tailrace taking water away to the lower outlet waterway
  8. 8. 1. Once a dam is constructed, electricity can be produced at a constant rate. 2. If electricity is not needed, the sluice gates can be shut, stopping electricity generation. The water can be saved for use another time when electricity demand is high. 3. Dams are designed to last many decades and so can contribute to the generation of electricity for many years / decades. 4. The lake that forms behind the dam can be used for water sports and leisure / pleasure activities. Often large dams become tourist attractions in their own right. 5. The lake's water can be used for irrigation purposes. 6. The build up of water in the lake means that energy can be stored until needed, when the water is released to produce electricity. 7. When in use, electricity produced by dam systems do not produce green house gases. They do not pollute the atmosphere.
  9. 9. bibliography http://en.wikipedia.org http://www.technologystudent.com
  10. 10.  NAME –Raghav Chawla  CLASS-(X-A)  ROLL NO.-31  SENT BY (ID)-abcde.chawla@gmail.com  DATE –(10.06.2014)  TIME -11:59AM
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