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A PROJECT REPORT ON CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS IN NIT
WARANGAL CAMPUS
By
NARHARI SAI(128937)
NISHANT SINGH(128938)
P.VALLIAPPAN...
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the candidates Narahari sai G , Nishant Singh , P.Valliappan ,
Pagidimarri Geetha , P...
DECLARATION

We declare that this written submission represents ours ideas in our own words and where
others’ ideas or wor...
CONTENTS

1.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..8
OBJECTIVE
1.1 TYPES OF ROADS……………………………………………………………………………………...10
1.2 STAT...
4.FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS……………………………………..30
KNOWLEDG AREAS
4.1 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………31
4.2PR...
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Construction planning and execution is a fundamental and challenging activity in the
management of cons...
Site view of Roads in NIT Warangal Campus

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 7
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 8
OBJECTIVE :



Complete the project in the specified time horizon and allocated cost.
Deliver value to the customers by ...
1.Types Of Roads:
1.1.


Generally private roads:
Driveway

1.2. Lower capacity highways


AlleyArterial roadAvenuBackro...
“…IT IS NOT WEALTH THAT BUILT THE ROADS BUT, ROADS
THAT BUILT OUR WEALTH”
-John F. Kennedy

1. INDIAN ROAD NETWORK-CURRENT...
2. STATUS OF MAIN HIGHWAYS
Carriageway

National Highways

State Highways

Length KM

Percent

Length KM

Percent

Four-la...
3. NATIONAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 13
4. ROAD CONSTRUCTION
Road construction in India is about rs.150 billion. The contracting industry consist of large
scale c...
FLY ASH FOR ROAD EMBANKMENT


Ideally suited as back fill material



Higher shear strength leads to greater stability

...
LAYING OF GEOTEXTILE OVER SOIL SUBGRADE (AS SEPARATOR)

MATERIALS FOR ROAD PAVEMENTS


Sub gradeup gradation (stabilisati...
Lime stabilisation of (Orissa)

View of finished road surface

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 17
USE OF PROCESSED MUNICIPAL WASTES
1.Construction of stabilised base/sub-base courses(PMW-lime-fly ash, PMWsoil-cement)

2....
MATERIALS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS
Roller compacted concrete (RCCP)
1. Faster and economical
2. Can be used for base course and...
FUNDAMENTALS OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION CONSISTS OF FIVE
TOPICS:






Topic 1: Construction Management Overview
Topic 2: P...
CHAPTER 2
PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 21
2.1Phases in road construction
2.1.1Feasibility phase
• Generation and development of ideas
• Feasibility studies
• Studie...
• Value engineering
• Preparation of contract for construction

2.1.4Construction phase
• Construction management
• Qualit...
CHAPTER 3
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 24
3.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS):
A work breakdown structure (WBS), in project management and systems engineering, is a
...
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 26
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 27
3.2 Activity Diagram:
Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and actions
with...
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 29
CHAPTER 4
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSTIONS

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 30
KNOWLEDGE AREA

4.1 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT
The project is first conceptualized for a specific segment of customers. The ...
between teams is required to avoid any communication gap which can lead to cost overruns and
scope creep. Any team will co...
4.5 PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT
In this stage the procurement of the necessary materials are done. This is done through...
CHAPTER 5
BIBLIOGRAPHY

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL

Page 34
WEBSITES
 POZAN.COM
http://www.ikb.poznan.pl/fcee/2005.06/full/fcee_2005-06_203216_logistics_of_construction.pdf (03-Nov ...
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  1. 1. A PROJECT REPORT ON CONSTRUCTION OF ROADS IN NIT WARANGAL CAMPUS By NARHARI SAI(128937) NISHANT SINGH(128938) P.VALLIAPPAN(128939) PAGIDIMARRI GEETHA(128940) PALAKURTHY ANUSHA(128941) Under the Guidance of Sri. Syed Habeeb (Faculty) SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY WARANGAL (2012-2014) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 1
  2. 2. CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the candidates Narahari sai G , Nishant Singh , P.Valliappan , Pagidimarri Geetha , Palakurthy Anusha who are the students of NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, has completed their project “Construction of Roads in NIT Warangal” in Warangal, Andhra Pradesh. This project is the record of the authentic work carried out during the academic year 2012-2014. They have done this project by themselves as a team Syed Habeeb (Faculty) School Of Management National Institute Of Technology Warangal, Andhra Pradesh NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 2
  3. 3. DECLARATION We declare that this written submission represents ours ideas in our own words and where others’ ideas or words have been included, we have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. We also declared that we have adhered to all principles of academic honesty and integrity and have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. we understand that any violation of the above will cause for disciplinary action by the institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed. NARHARI SAI(128937) NISHANT SINGH(128938) P.VALLIAPPAN(128939) PAGIDIMARRI GEETHA(128940) PALAKURTHY ANUSHA(128941) Date: 07-11-12 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 3
  4. 4. CONTENTS 1.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………..8 OBJECTIVE 1.1 TYPES OF ROADS……………………………………………………………………………………...10 1.2 STATUS OF MAIN HIGHWAYS……………………………………………………………………….11 1.3 NATIONAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT…………………………………………………12 1.4 ROAD CONSTRUCTION………………………………………………………………………………..14 1.5 CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL………………………………………………………………………….14 1.6 ROAD CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT………………………………………………………………..14 1.7FLY ASH FOR ROAD EMBANKMENT………………………………………………………………..16 1.8 MATERIAL FOR ROAD PAVEMENT…………………………………………………………………18 2.PROJECT LIFE CYCLE………………………………………………21 2.1 PHASES IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION…………………………………………………………………..22 3.TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES…………………………………………24 3.1 WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE………………………………………………………………….25 3.2 ACTIVITY DIAGRAM………………………………………………………………………………….28 3.3 GANTT CHART………………………………………………………………………………………....29 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 4
  5. 5. 4.FINDING AND CONCLUSIONS……………………………………..30 KNOWLEDG AREAS 4.1 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………31 4.2PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT………………………………………………………………………...31 4.3 PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………………….31 4.4PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT……………………………………………………….32 4.5 PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT……………………………………………………………32 4.6 PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT…………………………………………………………………………32 4.FINDINGS AND CONCLUSTIONS………………………………………………………………………….33 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………34 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 5
  6. 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Construction planning and execution is a fundamental and challenging activity in the management of construction projects. It involves the choice of technology, the definition of work tasks, the estimation of the required resources and durations for individual tasks, and the identification of any interactions among the different work tasks. A good construction plan is the basis for developing the budget and the schedule for work. Developing the construction plan is a critical task in the management of construction, even if the plan is not written or otherwise formally recorded. In addition to these technical aspects of construction planning, it may also be necessary to make organizational decisions about the relationships between project participants and even which organizations to include in a project. For example, the extent to which subcontractors will be used on a project is often determined during construction planning. Construction time performance (CTP) and flexibility in approaches to project time planning have been shown to be significantly associated. This raises interesting questions about how effective planning and control to facilitate flexibility in overcoming unexpected problems may be achieved. Various tools and techniques such as Gantt chart, activity diagram and Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) have aided the road construction projects in an effective manner. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 6
  7. 7. Site view of Roads in NIT Warangal Campus NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 7
  8. 8. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 8
  9. 9. OBJECTIVE :   Complete the project in the specified time horizon and allocated cost. Deliver value to the customers by providing excellent customer support. Roads are an integral part of the transport system. A country’s road network should be efficient in order to maximize economic and social benefits. They play a significant role in achieving national development and contributing to the overall performance and social functioning of the community. It is acknowledged that roads enhance mobility, taking people out of isolation and therefore poverty. In China for instance, the government has popularized this belief by emphasizing that for any economy to develop, transport must start off first which will later stimulate other sectors to develop in an orderly fashion The most important factors which are needed in the developing country are economics, political and military. Each of them play great role in the respective part but they cannot perform an excellence job without proper communication and transportation. There are three main kinds of transportation, they are by air, land and water .There are two main transportations on land, they are trains and cars but roads are necessary for both of them. Cars can be driven without roads but it is difficult and very dangerous. Trains cannot travel with railroads. It is very hard to travel in tropical country such as Myanmar in raining season without a road. There are muds everywhere and they always cause trouble for cars and trains. Thus our government is building roads and railroads around the country for the safety of the citizens. The basic of economic is trading and when people trade, the transportation will be needed. The country economic will develop when people travel to different the places and do businesses. When the politic ants travel around the country to meet the public, they will also need a road. When the military officers receive an order to check an area for the safety of the citizens, they will need roads to get there as soon as possible. By that way people can stay at their houses safe and sound. So people will love the their leader and obey the laws of our country. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 9
  10. 10. 1.Types Of Roads: 1.1.  Generally private roads: Driveway 1.2. Lower capacity highways  AlleyArterial roadAvenuBackroadBoulevardTerrace  BywayCollector roadCourtCul-de-sacDirt road  Frontage roadHighwayLaneRoadRouteSingle carriageway  StreetWinter road 1.3. Higher capacity highways, sometimes with medians  Parkway  Expressway  Turnpike  2+1 road  2+2 road  Farm to Market Road 1.4. Limited access grade-separated highways  Autobahn  Auto-estrada  Autopista  Autostrada  Autostrasse  Controlled-access highway  Expressway, a term used inconsistently in different locations; see Controlled-access highway and Limited-access highway  Freeway  High-quality dual carriageway (HQDC)  Interstate Highway  Limited-access highway  Motorway NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 10
  11. 11. “…IT IS NOT WEALTH THAT BUILT THE ROADS BUT, ROADS THAT BUILT OUR WEALTH” -John F. Kennedy 1. INDIAN ROAD NETWORK-CURRENT STATUS National Highway (NH) 58,112 State Highways (SH) 1,37,119 Major District Roads (MDR) 4,70,000 Village and Other Roads (ODR & 26,50,000 VR) Total Road Length 33,15,231 NHs are less than 2% of network but carry 40% of total traffic NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 11
  12. 12. 2. STATUS OF MAIN HIGHWAYS Carriageway National Highways State Highways Length KM Percent Length KM Percent Four-lane 1800 4 1200 1 Two-lane 23700 66 238800 19 One-lane 15000 30 100500 80 Total 49500 100 125500 100 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 12
  13. 13. 3. NATIONAL HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT PROJECT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 13
  14. 14. 4. ROAD CONSTRUCTION Road construction in India is about rs.150 billion. The contracting industry consist of large scale contractors (Rs.500 million and above) about 20 large contractors accounting 40% of construction activities, medium scale contractors (Rs.100-500 million) is involved about 20% of construction activities and small scale contractors (Rs.5-100 million) is involved in remaining 40%. 5. CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL Embankment Subgrade Pavement structure base course Surface course Special materials for drainage Maintenance 6. ROAD CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT Earlier labour-based method In 1960s Mechanisation introduced. Govt. Bodies are the main buyers of the road construction equipment, market is limited During 1980s, transformation took place. Project became much larger size –external agency funding –mandatory to use appropriate equipment Pre-qualification criteria: based on ownership of equipment for selection of contractors. In large projects 10 % advance were given, as a result contractors began purchasing their own equipment. Half of Indian manufactures producing equipment in India have tie-up with foreign partners to improve their products. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 14
  15. 15. FLY ASH FOR ROAD EMBANKMENT  Ideally suited as back fill material  Higher shear strength leads to greater stability  Design by conventional method  Intermediate soil layers to provide confinement Guidelines approved by IRC USE OF GEOTEXTILES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF EMBANKMENT WITH STEEP SLOPE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 15
  16. 16. LAYING OF GEOTEXTILE OVER SOIL SUBGRADE (AS SEPARATOR) MATERIALS FOR ROAD PAVEMENTS  Sub gradeup gradation (stabilisation) Improvement in CBR and reduction in pavement thickness by stabilisation (use of foamed bitumen-cement, enzymes, resins etc.) 2.Sub-base/base courses Use of waste materials like fly ash, Blast furnace slag, Aircooled slags, municipal wastes, etc 3.Wearing courses Modified bitumens, multigradebitumens and improved emulsions NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 16
  17. 17. Lime stabilisation of (Orissa) View of finished road surface NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 17
  18. 18. USE OF PROCESSED MUNICIPAL WASTES 1.Construction of stabilised base/sub-base courses(PMW-lime-fly ash, PMWsoil-cement) 2.Construction of test track using municipal wastes CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF MODIFIERS and Raw Materials 1. Traffic 2. Climate 3. Cost-effectiveness 4. Performance reports 5. Constructabilit NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 18
  19. 19. MATERIALS FOR RIGID PAVEMENTS Roller compacted concrete (RCCP) 1. Faster and economical 2. Can be used for base course and for wearing course 3. Saving of cement by using fly ash and GBFS Construction of roller compacted concrete Use of waste materials like Marble slurry dust, Slag, Fly ash, etc -Use of waste materials to replace aggregates (DLC) -Use of pozzolanic waste materials to replace part of cement (CC and RCC pavements) Magnesium oxychloride cement -As a substitute to OPC in CC pavements -Used for stabilisation of sand NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 19
  20. 20. FUNDAMENTALS OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION CONSISTS OF FIVE TOPICS:      Topic 1: Construction Management Overview Topic 2: Preliminary Investigations Topic 3: Setting Out Topic 4: Earthworks Topic 5: Roadsides BRIEF:      Construction Management Overview – the critical issues in construction management including scheduling techniques, plant and equipment, human resources, materials, project management, works program, safety and traffic management, quality systems and environmental management. Preliminary Investigations – the phases of road investigation including land acquisition, environmental issues, relocation of services and cultural and indigenous heritage management. Setting Out – covers vertical and horizontal alignments, preparation for earthworks and trimming sub grades. Earthworks – includes specifications, definition of earthworks terms, hold points, witness points and milestones, earthworks planning, plant and equipment, earthmoving operations and compliance testing and measurement. Drainage – urban drainage, geo-textiles, surface erosion protection, moisture, permeability, road drainage systems, construction methods and selection of materials. Roadsides – items at the roadside including furniture/signs, batter slopes, landscaping, guardrails, crash barriers and noise fences/barriers NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 20
  21. 21. CHAPTER 2 PROJECT LIFE CYCLE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 21
  22. 22. 2.1Phases in road construction 2.1.1Feasibility phase • Generation and development of ideas • Feasibility studies • Studies of infrastructure needs • Layout studies • Assessment of design data • Cost estimation • Construction and procurement scheduling • Environmental impact assessment • Social impact assessment 2.1.2Design phase • Establishment of design basis • Design data studies • Geotechnical assessments • Durability design • Civil and structural design • Mechanical and electrical installations • Operational risk assessment 2.1.3Tender phase • Development of tender design • Management of tender procedures NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 22
  23. 23. • Value engineering • Preparation of contract for construction 2.1.4Construction phase • Construction management • Quality, environmental and safety management • Construction risk management • Interface coordination • Program and budget control • Site supervision • Contract and claims management 2.1.5Operation and maintenance (O&M) • O&M management system • Inspection of structures and installations • Ranking of maintenance and reinvestment needs • Repair and strengthening design • Institutional development and training • Quality management NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 23
  24. 24. CHAPTER 3 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 24
  25. 25. 3.1 Work Breakdown Structure (WBS): A work breakdown structure (WBS), in project management and systems engineering, is a deliverable oriented decomposition of a project into smaller components. A work breakdown structure element may be a product, data, service, or any combination thereof. A WBS also provides the necessary framework for detailed cost estimating and control along with providing guidance for schedule development and control. WBS is a hierarchical and incremental decomposition of the project into phases, deliverables and work packages. It is a tree structure, which shows a subdivision of effort required to achieve an objective; for example a program, project, and contract. In a project or contract, the WBS is developed by starting with the end objective and successively subdividing it into manageable components in terms of size, duration, and responsibility (e.g., systems, subsystems, components, tasks, subtasks, and work packages) which include all steps necessary to achieve the objective. A work breakdown structure permits summing of subordinate costs for tasks, materials, etc., into their successively higher level “parent” tasks, materials, etc. For each element of the work breakdown structure, a description of the task to be performed is generated. This technique (sometimes called a system breakdown structure is used to define and organize the total scope of a project. The WBS is organized around the primary products of the project (or planned outcomes) instead of the work needed to produce the products (planned actions). Since the planned outcomes are the desired ends of the project, they form a relatively stable set of categories in which the costs of the planned actions needed to achieve them can be collected. A well-designed WBS makes it easy to assign each project activity to one and only one terminal element of the WBS. In addition to its function in cost accounting, the WBS also helps map requirements from one level of system specification to another, for example a requirements cross reference matrix mapping functional requirements to high level or low level design documents. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 25
  26. 26. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 26
  27. 27. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 27
  28. 28. 3.2 Activity Diagram: Activity diagrams are graphical representations of workflows of stepwise activities and actions with support for choice, iteration and concurrency. In the Unified Modeling Language, activity diagrams are intended to model both computational and organisational processes (i.e. workflows). Activity diagrams show the overall flow of control. Activity diagrams are constructed from a limited number of shapes, connected with arrows.The most important shape types:      rounded rectangles represent actions; diamonds represent decisions; bars represent the start (split) or end (join) of concurrent activities; a black circle represents the start (initial state) of the workflow; an encircled black circle represents the end (final state). Arrows run from the start towards the end and represent the order in which activities happen. Hence they can be regarded as a form of flowchart. Typical flowchart techniques lack constructs for expressing concurrency NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 28
  29. 29. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 29
  30. 30. CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSTIONS NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 30
  31. 31. KNOWLEDGE AREA 4.1 PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT The project is first conceptualized for a specific segment of customers. The market is understood and the needs of the segment are analyzed. The location and the environmental factors of the project are decided based on the previous analysis. In this project, the upper middle class and higher class of people are selected and the need of status is identified. The project will be located in a residential area which is well connected to the centrally to the city. The design of the project, selection of contractors and architects, approval of local municipal laws etc. are decided and made available. The role of each stakeholder is decided and the cost requirement (Budget) for completion of the project is determined. This can be done quickly based on the previous experience of the other similar projects. The risks are identified and the steps are taken to subdue the risks in order to avoid scope creep. 4.2 PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT The contracting industry consist of large scale contractors (Rs.500 million and above) about 20 large contractors accounting 40% of construction activities, medium scale contractors (Rs.100-500 million) is involved about 20% of construction activities and small scale contractors (Rs.5-100 million) is involved in remaining 40%. This project basically deal with the small scale contractors. 4.3 PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMNT This is the stage where the actual work on the plan starts. It is not an easy task for anyone to convert the plan on paper into reality. This requires expertise in the specific area such as electrical, plumbing, civil, structural etc. Each task is assigned team to complete the job. These tasks are sometimes dependent and sometimes overlapping (independent). A proper coordination NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 31
  32. 32. between teams is required to avoid any communication gap which can lead to cost overruns and scope creep. Any team will consist of a project manager who manages and controls the overall project. Under him the task managers/supervisors are assigned who looks after the progress of the particular task. Contractors, architects, structural engineers and civil engineers are assigned for each task and works closely with the task manager/supervisor. The implementation/construction can be divided into phases depending on the bookings by customers and the availability of materials and labor. The problem comes with the material quality and delivery, labor issues, Safety issues, Compliance, Coordination etc. which ultimately results in the scope creep, cost overruns and hinders customer delivery and satisfaction. Thus in order to achieve the target, a project manager has to closely monitor the progress and avid bottlenecks. 4.4PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 32
  33. 33. 4.5 PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT In this stage the procurement of the necessary materials are done. This is done through tendering where various contractors are invited from the qualified contractors. At first the BOQ and tender specifications are decided by the tenderer. These details are then used for the compilation of the tender. These tenders are then sent to the selected number of contractors for different tasks and the filled tenders are received in the time specified by the tenderer. These tenders are then verified and the selection of the contractor is done. Negotiation takes place and finally the tender is awarded to the successful contractor. This stage is one of the most crucial stages of a project. The root cause of any project not completing in time is majorly due to defaults in this stage. A tenderer has to be very careful about wrong information filing, faulty tender specifications and BOQ. This causes increase the ordering cost, change in contractors, increase in project completion time, complexities etc. which actually increases the scope of the project. 4.6 PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT Scheduling of the project is done in order to micro manage the project and monitor the progress of the project. This helps in understanding the variations from the actual plan and a manager can decide how fast the work has to be done and whether there will be a scope creep. This can be done by preparing Gantt chart where the start, completion and progress of a project are mentioned. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 33
  34. 34. CHAPTER 5 BIBLIOGRAPHY NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 34
  35. 35. WEBSITES  POZAN.COM http://www.ikb.poznan.pl/fcee/2005.06/full/fcee_2005-06_203216_logistics_of_construction.pdf (03-Nov 04:45 pm)  TANDFONLINE http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01446190110089691#.Unqcx XAy1Vo (05-Nov 11:30 pm)  ILLINOIS DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT http://www.dot.state.il.us/const/constbrochure/constbrochure.html (05- Nov 11:45 pm)  EUROPE TRANSPORT http://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/projects/doc/nr2c_final_report.pdf (06-Nov 10:30 pm)  MINISTRY OF ROAD TRANSPORT http://morth.nic.in/ (06-Nov 11:45 pm) BOOKS:  PMBOK Guide – Fourth Edition NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,WARANGAL Page 35

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