In the upcoming slides, I will address the problems and suggest solutions to solve those problems.
All women bank ? What we need is more Women Police station.
Reforms in indian police system
What should be the new face of Indian PoliceWhat should be the new face of Indian Policeto maintain Law and Order in the Largestto maintain Law and Order in the LargestDemocracy of the World ?Democracy of the World ?
People cannot take the law into their own hands. Therationale behind this reasoning is that the state ispresent to protect its citizens and to create anenvironment for realization of human rights. There is no right of private defense in cases wherethere is adequate time to have recourse to publicprotection. Thus, citizens claim protection from the state fortheir welfare and it is the reciprocal obligation of thestate to ensure the rule of law through itsinstitutions.Need for Police
Citizens expect police to protect their rights and toprovide them security to lead a peaceful life, devoidof any fear.Expectations from the Police
But unfortunately, the image of police today is notthat of a protector of the innocents but as anextortionist, colluder with criminals and one of themost corrupt arms of the government.Harsh Reality
This photo, takenat India Gate,during the recentprotests in Delhi,clearly shows theway policehandles people.A Picture is worth thousand words
Police in India, is governed by the colonial Police Actof 1861 enacted by the British. This act was meant for subjects and not for the freecitizens of a democracy. A global survey* showed that at best, the Police areinactive; at worst they "actively harass, oppress andbrutalise”.So what has gone wrong ?* "The World Bank: Can anyone hear us? Voices from 47 countries, December, 1999" cited in "Police Practices: Obstruction to PoorPeoples Access to Justice", G. P. Joshi, (Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative Publication, 2003) , p. 7 para 1
The relation between the police and the public has reached apoint where the citizens rather avoid reporting a crime to thepolice. In a survey done by Transparency International India in 2005, 87% of the respondent to the survey agreed that there wascorruption in the police force, 74% felt that the quality of service they received wasinadequate and 47% were compelled to pay a bribe for their FIR to get filed.Loss of Public faith
Hence, there is an urgent need to reform the IndianPolice System.Need for Reform
India has one of the finest selection processes for IPSofficers which is backed by excellent training at theNational Police Academy in Hyderabad. Unfortunately the same cannot be said of theselection system at the state level where officersbelow the ranks of DSPs are recruited. Favouritism, corruption and casteism play a majorrole in this process.Selection, Promotion & Transfer
The recommendations made by the National PoliceCommission in 1979, aimed at insulating the policefrom illegitimate outside control, pressure andinterference remain unimplemented till today. So, what we need is a strong political will to makethe selection, promotion and transfer procedure ofthe police officials more transparent, and based onmeritSolution
“Nearly 90 per cent of the police forces in the country iscomprised of the constabulary. Unlike in the past, more andmore educated men and women are voluntarily joining the policeat this entry level, in expectation of a satisfying career. Thisprecious resource will have to be protected. This is not possibleunder the existing state of affairs, where obedience and servilityto the senior officers and the political masters are the maincriteria for advancement and placement in meaningful jobswithin the police. If professional excellence has to be nurtured,we owe them the right working conditions in which they cangive of their best. Such an ambience cannot come about withoutimplementing the most crucial National Police Commissionrecommendations that are gathering dust in North Block and inState Secretariats.”In an open letter to former President Abdul Kalam the former CBIdirector R.K. Raghavan had this to say
Since the police is answerable to the politicians, theytend to wield their power over the policemen. Recently, a DSP was beaten to death in Deoria, UttarPradesh, because he did not agree to listen to thewhims of a powerful minister – Raja Bhaiyya. Hence, there is an immediate need to make the policebody, free from the shackles of the politicians.Freeing the Police from Politics
Crime by police officials and in police stations hasbeen increasing with cases about custodial deathsand rape of women detainees making headlines.Often victims of crime or even riots are treated withutter contempt as if they deserved what they hadundergone. This is mainly due to the lack ofawareness of human rights among policemen. Evenduring their basic training policemen need to besensitized about human rights and how to handlesensitive cases.Training & Sensitization
Interpretation of laws has been another weak point in theIndian police system, especially when it concerns those likeSub-inspectors and constables. For example in the recent controversy where two girls werearrested by the Maharashtra Police over a facebook status, theCourt rebuked the police officers for their poor interpretationof Section 66 of the IT Act. In the name of moral policing even law abiding citizens aremade to appear like criminals by some overzealous cops. There should be constant up gradation of knowledge andskills.Interpretation of laws
Women comprise just 3.98 per cent of the countrys totalpolice force. The creation of women police stations will be a positivedevelopment since women police by their nature are betterequipped to take a sympathetic approach in issues likedomestic violence, dowry harassment and child abuse. Still our police, especially those manning the policestations, need to be taught people skills and sensitizedabout handling complainants who are already traumatizeddue to mishap. All women bank ? What we clearly need more isWomen Police station.Less no. of Women in Police
Most state police departments are woefullyunderstaffed with a large number of vacancies. Fresh departments for anti-terrorism cell, VIPsecurity, cyber crime and human rights are createdbut are not manned by the right people. According to a recent article in Times of India, IndianPolice needs 5,00,000 more policemen.Inadequate Manpower
Indian police remains one of the most ill equipped inthe world in spite of our country among the worst tosuffer due to terrorism. Our police lack fast vehicles, communicationequipment and even proper weapons. They appearlike comical figures carrying their outdated .303 rifleswhereas their adversaries are armed with AK 47s. Forensic tools to fight crime and technology to tacklethe growing instances of cyber crime are urgent needsfor an effective policing in these modern times.Modernization of our police force
India was the first country in the world to have afinger print forensic laboratory in 1897. Today there are only 23 labs in the country comparedto 203 in the US. Currently there are only three Central DetectiveTraining Schools in India. The low number of schoolscauses a problem to ensure continuous training forthe Indian police force. Greater resources need to be allocated towardsenhancing the capacity of forensic laboratories.Did you know ?
Three cops for a VIP compared to one cop for 761ordinary citizens* In 2010, 16,788 VIPs were guarded by 50,059 policepersonnel, which is 21,761 more than the sanctioneddeployment for their security. More Policemen should be employed for the citizensof this country, rather than the VIP’s who can evenafford private guards.Reduction of Policemen forVIP/VVIP Security*In UK and South Africa this ratio is 200.
In a study on the "Image of Police in India”*, over 50% ofthe respondents mentioned non registration of complaintas a pervasive malpractice in police stations. The Law Commission of India examined the subject andrecommended that any officer who refused to record anFIR be subject to imprisonment for a term of one year orfine or both. However the government blatantly refused to accept thisrecommendation which could have been a potent armourin the hands of citizens against police harassment.Grievance Redressal*The National Police Commission, Government of India, Fourth Report, June 1980, p. 1
A Toll Free Number should be made available to all thepeople to complaint against the police officers. The call should be recorded, a complaint registered, and anotice should be sent to the concerned police officer toexplain his inaction to file FIR within the next 24 hours. Failing to reply to the notice, they should befined/suspended based on their record. A local police ombudsman, i.e., an Independent oversightbody that will have jurisdiction over complaints ofobstruction of justice and abuse of authority by the police,needs to be set up.An alternate solution
We need forceful laws to back our policemen.Outdated laws, judicial loopholes and adequate legalsafeguards for witnesses have resulted in many aconfirmed criminal walking free without conviction. In the famous Jessica Lal case in Delhi where thekiller, who is the son of a leading politician, couldwalk free by getting the eye witnesses to turn hostiledue to which the police were unable to prove hisguilt. If only we had strong laws against perjury, asin Britain, it would make witnesses think twicebefore retracting their statements.Judicial backing to the Police
Hafiz Saeed, a well known terrorist, was ably caughtby our police. But was let off by the government. Many of our laws drafted to fight crime also need tobe modified keeping in mind, the changedconditions of the society and modern techniques ofthe criminal.Judicial backing to the Police
To substantially improve the functioning of Indianpolice force and enhance its public accountabilitythere should be a three way division of functionsinto: an independent crime investigation mechanism, maintenance of law and order and local police force (district level) units.It is high time to bring in a new police system in India to ensure greateraccountability, efficiency and a citizen service minded approach.
The prescription for carrying out police reformsalready exists in the form of findings of variouspolice commissions, judicial pronouncements andadvice of retired police officers. Only the politicalwill to implement them, is woefully lacking.