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  3. 7. Objectives of The Chapter <ul><li>To understand </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning of Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation Vs Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Sub processes of Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Social Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Impression Management </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage between Perception and Individual decision-making </li></ul>
  4. 8. What do You Understand by this Picture?
  5. 9. Meaning of Perception <ul><li>Perception may be defined as the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. </li></ul>
  6. 10. Sensation Vs Perception <ul><li>Sensation deals with the basic behavior of an individual, caused by his physiological functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes and interprets stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture of the environment in which he lives. </li></ul>
  7. 11. Sub processes of Perception External Environment Confrontation Consequences Behavior Feedback Interpretation Registration Sociocultural Environment Physical Environment
  8. 12. Perceptual Selectivity <ul><li>Though people are exposed to several stimuli , they tend to select only a few at a given point of time, this is perceptual selectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Subliminal Perception : when the stimuli is so subtle that an individual may not even be conscious that he is exposed to some stimulus. </li></ul>
  9. 13. Factors Influencing Perceptual Selectivity <ul><li>External Attention Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty and </li></ul><ul><li>familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Set Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Learning and Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation and Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and Perception </li></ul>
  10. 14. External Attention Factors <ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><li>According to the intensity principle of attention, the intensity of an external stimulus determines its probability of being perceived. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Light Colour Bright Colour </li></ul>
  11. 15. Size: A larger object is more likely to be noticed than a smaller object. Example: Which you can read fast? God is great God is great External Attention Factors
  12. 16. <ul><li>Contrast: According to the principles of contrast, the stimuli that contradict most with the background or the expectations of people receive maximum attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Which white square is smaller? </li></ul>External Attention Factors
  13. 17. Motion: People gives more attention to moving objects than the stationery objects. Example: Moving object Stationery object External Attention Factors Contd…
  14. 18. <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>The more number of </li></ul><ul><li>times a stimulus is </li></ul><ul><li>repeated, the more it is likely to be noticed </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty and Familiarity: </li></ul><ul><li>New objects in a </li></ul><ul><li>familiar situation or </li></ul><ul><li>familiar objects in a </li></ul><ul><li>new situation draw the perceiver’s attention. </li></ul>External Attention Factors Contd…
  15. 19. Internal Set Factors Learning and Perception: Learning by itself plays a major role in developing the perceptual set. Example: Hilly Terrrain Ahead
  16. 20. <ul><li>Motivation and Perception: </li></ul><ul><li>The primary motives: </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger and Thirst </li></ul><ul><li>The secondary motives: </li></ul><ul><li>The need for power, The need for affiliation and The need for achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Personality and Perception : </li></ul><ul><li>Personality of a person influence perception </li></ul>
  17. 21. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>The Perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>The Target </li></ul><ul><li>The Situation </li></ul>
  18. 22. <ul><li>Emphasizes on the subsequent activities that take place in the perceptual Process after a stimulus is received. </li></ul>Perceptual Organization
  19. 23. Forms of Perceptual Organization <ul><li>Figure-ground </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Grouping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Constancy </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Context </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Defense </li></ul>
  20. 24. Perceptual Organization <ul><li>Figure-ground: </li></ul><ul><li>In perceiving stimuli or phenomena, the tendency is to keep certain phenomena in focus and other phenomena in background. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>An individual tends to group several stimuli together into a recognizable pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Various forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul>Perceptual Grouping
  22. 26. <ul><li>The perception of elements like size, shape, color, brightness and location of an object remains constant and does not change from individual to individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Photograph </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual Context </li></ul><ul><li>It provides meaning and value to objects, events, situation and other people in the environment. </li></ul>Perceptual Constancy
  23. 27. <ul><li>It refers to the screening of those elements which create conflict and threatening situation in people. </li></ul>Perceptual Defense
  24. 28. Social Perception <ul><li>It is directly concerned with how one individual perceives other individuals; how we get to know others. </li></ul>Factors affecting Social perception Attribution Stereotyping The Halo Effect
  25. 29. Attribution <ul><li>Attribution refers to how people explain the cause of another’s or their own behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>The determination depends on three factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Stereotyping <ul><li>It is the tendency to perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category </li></ul><ul><li>Halo effect </li></ul><ul><li>The person is perceived on the basis of one trait or event. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Impression Management <ul><li>It is referred to as “ self presentation ” </li></ul><ul><li>It is the process by which people try to manage or control the perceptions formed by other people about themselves. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Impression Management Strategies Used By Employees <ul><li>Demotion-preventive strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Apologies </li></ul><ul><li>Disassociation </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion-enhancing strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlements </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle-disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>It is used when employees want to minimize their responsibilities for negative outcome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disassociation </li></ul></ul>Demotion-Preventive Strategy
  30. 34. <ul><li>It is used when employees want to maximize their responsibility for a positive outcome or improve their image </li></ul><ul><li>Entitlements </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancements </li></ul><ul><li>Obstacle-disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Association </li></ul>Promotion-Enhancing Strategy :
  31. 35. Linkage Between Perception and Individual Decision-making <ul><li>Perception has a crucial role in individual decision-making in organizations, by affecting both the decision as well as the quality of the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>The decision taken by an individual is a complex process involving the intake of data, screening procession and interpreting and evaluating of data, based on the perceptions of the individual. </li></ul>
  32. 36. Summary of The Chapter <ul><li>Meaning of Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Sensation Vs perception </li></ul><ul><li>Sub processes of perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing perception </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual organization </li></ul><ul><li>Social Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Impression management </li></ul><ul><li>Linkage between perception and individual decision-Making </li></ul>