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FOUNDATION OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AND UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAM
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FOUNDATION OF GROUP BEHAVIOR AND UNDERSTANDING WORK TEAM

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understanding the formation of group and how they operate in an organization

understanding the formation of group and how they operate in an organization

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  • 1. NISHA HARIYANI Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Team
  • 2. Definition of a Group
    • A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment
    • Harold H. Kelley
    • and J.W. Thibaut
  • 3. The Nature of groups
    • Three views :
    • Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out.
    • Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques.
    • Regarding internal nature of groups
  • 4.
    • Theory of Propinquity - People associate with one another due to geographical proximity.
    • Balance Theory - People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group.
    • Exchange Theory - The reward-cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation
    Dynamics of Group Formation
  • 5. Various Types of Groups Formal groups Informal Groups
    • Small groups
    • Large groups
    • Primary groups
    • Secondary groups
    • Coalitions
    • Membership groups
    • Reference groups
    • Command groups
    • Task groups
    • Friendship groups
    • Interest groups
  • 6.
    • These groups are formed by the organization to
    • carry out specific tasks.
    • It includes two types:
    • Command group
    • Task groups
    Formal Groups
  • 7.
    • Command Group:
    • Represented in the organization chart.
    • Permanent in nature.
    • Members report to common supervisors.
    • Functional reporting relationship exists.
    • Task groups:
    • Formed to carry out specific tasks.
    • Temporary in nature.
    Formal Groups contd…
  • 8.
    • Informal groups are formed by the employees
    • themselves. Hence they are not formally
    • structured.
    • They are of two types:
    • Friendship groups
    • Interest groups
    Informal Groups
  • 9.
    • Small groups:
    • Only a few members.
    • Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible.
    • Large groups:
    • Members is very high.
    • Personal interaction is not possible.
    Other types Include
  • 10.
    • Primary group:
    • It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship towards each other.
    • Secondary groups:
    • They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, they do not interact often with each other
    • Coalitions:
    • They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure.
  • 11.
    • Membership groups:
    • They are the groups to which individual actually belongs.
    • Reference groups:
    • It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong.
  • 12. Stages of Group Development
  • 13. Stages of Group Development The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together
  • 14. Punctuated Equilibrium Model Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.
    • Sequence of actions:
    • Setting group direction
    • First phase of inertia
    • Half-way point transition
    • Major changes
    • Second phase of inertia
    • Accelerated activity
  • 15.
    • It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole.
    Group Structure
  • 16.
    • Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on the group behavior and performance
    • Style of a leader is imitated by the members of the group.
    Formal leadership
  • 17.
    • Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display.
    • Dimensions of role are:
    • Role Identity
    • Role perception
    • Role Expectations
    • Role Conflict
    Roles
  • 18.
    • Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members.
    • Norms pertaining to performance related process
    • Appearance norms
    • Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements
    • Norms that regulate the allocation of resources
    Norms
  • 19. A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Example : a cabin of one’s own an air conditioner etc Status
  • 20.
        • Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best
      • elements of both small and large groups.
      • Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
    Size of a Group
  • 21.
    • Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform more effectively.
    Composition of a Group
  • 22.
    • The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members.
    • Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problem-solving committee.
    Group Tasks
  • 23.
    • The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.
    • Synergy.
    • Social
    • facilitation effect.
    Group Processes
  • 24.
    • Norms and roles in informal groups
    • Norms:
    • Roles: sharper, plant, monitor evaluator, team worker, implementer, co coordinator, complete fisher, resource investigator, specialist
    Dynamics of Informal Groups
  • 25. Significance of Informal Groups:
      • Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our organizational activities.
  • 26.
    • Prevent organizational changes
    • Role conflict
    • Increased scope for rumor
    • Pressure to conform to group norms
    Difficulties and problems Associated with informal Groups
  • 27. Dynamics of formal work Groups Although group dynamics is generally associated with informal norms and roles, formally designated work groups also have noticeable dynamics. Example: Committee
  • 28. Positive Attributes of Committees
    • It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members.
    • It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities.
    • It helps in the development and growth of human resources
    • It helps in the development and growth of human resources
  • 29. Negative Attributes of Committees
      • very time-consuming and costly.
      • responsible for a bad decision or mistake
  • 30. Understanding Work Teams
  • 31. Definition of Work Teams
    • A small number of people with complemen-tary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”.
    • -G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin
  • 32.
    • Enhanced performance
    • Employee benefits
    • Reduced costs
    • Organizational enhancements
    Benefits of Work Teams
  • 33. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  • 34.  
  • 35. Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  • 36. Types of Teams (cont’d)
    • Task forces
    • Committees
    Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
  • 37. Types of Teams Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  • 38. Team Effectiveness
    • Providing a supportive environment:
    • Relevant skills and role clarity:
    • Focus on superordiante goals.
    • Team rewards:
    .
  • 39. Shaping Individuals Into Team Players
    • Selection:
    • Good interpersonal skills
    • Training:
    • Can be trained by specialists
    • Rewards:
    • Financial or non financial rewards
  • 40. Applying Group Concepts to Teams: T owards Creating Effective Teams
    • Size of work teams
    • Abilities of members
    • Allocation of work roles
    • Strong commitment to a common purpose
    • Specifying clear and realistic performance goals
  • 41.
    • Good leadership and effective structure
    • Preventing social loafing and determining accountability
    • Proper evaluation and reward systems
    • Generating mutual trust among team members
  • 42. Teams and Total Quality Management
    • TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement.
  • 43. Teams and Workforce Diversity Diversified teams provide unique and innovative solutions, but at the same time, they are cohesive.
  • 44. Teams and Workforce Diversity
    • Advantages
    • Multiple perspectives
    • Greater openness to new ideas
    • Multiple interpretations Increased creativity
    • Increased problem actions solving skills
    • Disadvantages
    • Ambiguity
    • Complexity
    • Confusion
    • interpretations Miscommunication
    • Difficulty in reaching a single agreement
    • Difficulty in agreeing on specific