Toyota & Lexus Proposition


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This presentation tells you about the future plans for development and current workings of the Hybrid techonology in use by Toyota and Lexus

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  • we will continue to invest so that in the words of our President we can continue to “lead the way in the future of mobility ,delivering the safest most responsible products… so we are “ a company that…….
  • Invest more than any other company in R&D
  • … we deliver the right vehicles at the right place at the right time eg. Prius RX 450h etc
  • We offer one of the widest and most advanced range of vehicles in the market so we can meet the differing demands of customers, however more than any other manufacturer we have focussed on addressing the need for practical solutions to sustainable motoring and our solution has been to pioneer hybrid technology .
  • Today, through our approach we are not only able to deliver class leading products and services that address the needs of individuals but also to businesses as well
  • In the UK we have 11 years at the top of the most detailed satisfaction study conducted
  • Of course the big question for many customers is whether Hybrid Synergy Drive the best solution and what else could I be considering? So let’s take a brief look at some of the alternatives...
  • Toyota has been working hard to bring eco-conscious products to market in an eco-conscious way since 1963. In fact, we developed our first petrol turbine hybrid in ’67 – some 30 years before the Toyota Prius became a commercial reality!
  • Until now diesel has been seen by many customers as the best way of achieving good fuel economy and in truth diesel engine technology has really evolved over the past decade, to the point that it now dominates the luxury car market. But it does have some serious drawbacks which mean it may not be an economic long term solution for small and medium sized cars. Diesel Engine Exhaust Emissions Diesel engine exhaust emissions have the potential to cause a range of health problems. WHAT ARE DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST EMISSIONS? Diesel engine exhaust emissions (commonly known as 'diesel fumes') are a mixture of gases, vapours, liquid aerosols and substances made up of particles. They contain the products of combustion including: carbon (soot); nitrogen; water; carbon monoxide; aldehydes; nitrogen dioxide; sulphur dioxide; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The carbon particle or soot content varies from 60% to 80% depending on the fuel used and the type of engine. Most of the contaminants are adsorbed onto the soot. Petrol engines produce more carbon monoxide but much less soot than diesel engines. WHAT FACTORS AFFECT THE COMPOSITION OF DIESEL FUMES? The quantity and composition of diesel fumes in your workplace may vary depending on: the quality of diesel fuel used; the type of engine, eg standard, turbo or injector; the state of engine tuning; the fuel pump setting; the workload demand on the engine; the engine temperature; whether the engine has been regularly maintained. WHAT DOES THE COLOUR OF THE SMOKE PRODUCED INDICATE? Smoke is the product of combustion. Vehicles at your workplace may produce three kinds of smoke, two of which indicate engine problems. The three types are: blue smoke (mainly oil and unburnt fuel) which indicates a poorly serviced and/or tuned engine; black smoke (soot, oil and unburnt fuel) which indicates a mechanical fault with the engine; white smoke (water droplets and unburnt fuel) which is produced when the engine is started from cold and disappears when the engine warms up. With older engines, the white smoke produced has a sharp smell which may cause irritation to your upper respiratory system. Toxic emission: stages and legal framework The stages are typically referred to as Euro 1, Euro 2, Euro 3, Euro 4 and Euro 5 fuels for Light Duty Vehicle standards. The corresponding series of standards for Heavy Duty Vehicles use Roman, rather than Arabic numerals (Euro I, Euro II, etc.) The legal framework consists in a series of directives, each amendments to the 1970 Directive 70/220/EEC. [11] Here is a summary list of the standards, when they come into force, what they apply to, and which EU directives provide the definition of the standard.
  • Petrol engines have suffered something of a ‘crisis of confidence’ since the growth in popularity of diesels but if we consider there overall Advantages versus Disadvantages we can see that the they have much going for them. The use of the Atkinson cycle engine and Optimal Drive technology in our Hybrids makes them ideally suited to both current and future legislation. We have also seen in the past 3 years or so a return to the development of petrol engine technologies as car companies (in the broadest sense) have identified there numerous benefits.
  • There will soon be seeing a number of pure EV vehicles but there are still a number of fundamental issues that reduce their practicality. disadvantages giving the example of the Nissan Leaf. Nissan Leaf – range less than 100 miles, over 8hr charge from 13amp socket, Limited range means users will cover low annual mileages which limits the fuel savings that can be achieved. The RV’s position is still under debate due to the issue of ‘battery ownership’ – owners may lease the battery rather than buy it to keep purchase costs down.
  • Hydrogen is being touted as the next great development with examples including those from Toyota being tested in the USA and Japan. The big problem is cost, at the moment HFC technology makes a car cost around 10 times as much as a conventional car. Daimler and Hyundai are also exploring this technology and we have seen it appear on some boats and even fork lift trucks, but as yet it is not a practical technology for cars due to cost. Additional background information below A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile , or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft . The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine , or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy . Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels . However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. Integrated wind-to-hydrogen plants, using electrolysis of water , are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy sources. [1] Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile uses. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that, if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs, vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume, high tankage weights, the storage, transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles, the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles, and the inefficiency of production processes. Many companies are currently researching the feasibility of building hydrogen cars, and most of the automobile manufacturers had begun developing hydrogen cars (see list of fuel cell vehicles ). Funding has come from both private and government sources. However, the Ford Motor Company has dropped its plans to develop hydrogen cars, stating that "The next major step in Ford’s plan is to increase over time the volume of electrified vehicles". [4] Similarly, French Renault-Nissan announced in 2009 that it is cancelling its hydrogen car R&D efforts. [5] As of October 2009, General Motors CEO Fritz Henderson noted that GM had reduced its hydrogen program because the cost of building hydrogen cars was too high. "It's still a ways away from commercialization", he said. The " Volt will likely cost around $40,000 while a hydrogen vehicle would cost around $400,000. [6] Most hydrogen cars are currently only available in demonstration models or in a lease construction in limited numbers and are not yet ready for general public use. The estimated number of hydrogen-powered cars in the United States was 200 as of October 2009, mostly in California. [7] Honda introduced its fuel cell vehicle in 1999 called the FCX and have since then introduced the second generation FCX Clarity . In 2007 at the Greater Los Angeles Auto Show, Honda unveiled the first production model of the FCX Clarity. Limited marketing of the FCX Clarity began in June 2008 in the United States, and it was introduced in Japan in November 2008. [8] The FCX Clarity is available in the U.S. only in Los Angeles Area , where 16 hydrogen filling stations are available, and as of July 2009, 10 drivers had leased the Clarity for US$600 a month. [9] Honda stated that it could start mass producing vehicles based on the FCX concept by the year 2020. [9] Honda reaffirmed, in 2009, that it continues to put resources into hydrogen fuel cell development, which it sees as "a better long term bet than batteries and plug-in vehicles". [10] In 2008, Hyundai announced its intention to produce 500 FC vehicles by 2010 and to start mass production of its FC vehicles in 2012. [11] In early 2009, Daimler announced plans to begin its FC vehicle production in 2009 with the aim of 100,000 vehicles in 2012-2013. [12][13] In 2009, Nissan started testing a new FC vehicle in Japan. [14] In February 2010 Lotus Cars announced that it was developing a fleet of hydrogen taxis in London, with the hope of them being ready to trial by the 2012 Olympic Games . London's deputy mayor, Kit Malthouse , said he hoped six filling stations would be available and that around 20-50 taxis would be in operation by then, as well as 150 hydrogen-powered buses. [15] Fuel cell cost Currently, hydrogen fuel cells are costly to produce and are fragile. As of October 2009, Fortune magazine estimated the cost of producing the Honda Clarity at $300,000 per car. [29] Engineers are studying how to produce inexpensive fuel cells that are robust enough to survive the bumps and vibrations that all automobiles experience. Also, many designs require rare substances such as platinum as a catalyst in order to work properly. Such a catalyst can also become contaminated by impurities in the hydrogen supply. In the past few years, however, a nickel - tin nanometal catalyst has been under development which may lower the cost of cells. [30] Fuel cells are generally priced in USD/kW, and data is scarce regarding costs. Ballard Power Systems is virtually alone in publishing such data. Their 2005 figure was $73 USD/kW (based on high volume manufacturing estimates), which they said was on track to achieve the U.S. DoE's 2010 goal of $30 USD/kW. This would achieve closer parity with internal combustion engines for automotive applications, allowing a 100 kW fuel cell to be produced for $3000. 100 kW is about 134 hp . [31] [ edit ] Freezing conditions Temperatures below freezing (32 °F or 0 °C) are a concern with fuel cells operations. Operational fuel cells have an internal vaporous water environment that could solidify if the fuel cell and contents are not kept above 0° Celsius (32°F). Most fuel cell designs are not as yet robust enough to survive in below-freezing environments. Frozen solid, especially before start up, they would not be able to begin working. Once running though, heat is a byproduct of the fuel cell process, which would keep the fuel cell at an adequate operational temperature to function correctly. This makes startup of the fuel cell a concern in cold weather operation. Places such as Alaska where temperatures can reach −40 °C (−40 °F) at startup would not be able to use early model fuel cells. Ballard announced in 2006 that it had already hit the U.S. DoE's 2010 target for cold weather starting which was 50% power achieved in 30 seconds at -20 °C. [32] Just as early gasoline cars struggled with efficiency and reliability problems before becoming universally practical, so fuel cells have to work out startup and long term reliability problems. Early gasoline engines had the characteristic of higher heat dissipation once running, whereas fuels cells emit less heat, making the warm up process somewhat less quick. [33] [ edit ] Service life Although service life is coupled to cost, fuel cells have to be compared to existing machines with a service life in excess of 5000 hours [34] for stationary and light-duty. Marine PEM fuel cells reached the target in 2004. [35] Current service life is 7,300 hours under cycling conditions. [36] Research is going on especially for heavy duty like in the bus trials which are targeted up to a service life of 30,000 hours. For more details on this topic, see Fuel cell . [ edit ] Hydrogen Hydrogen does not come as a pre-existing source of energy like fossil fuels , but is first produced and then stored as a carrier, much like a battery . Hydrogen for vehicle uses needs to be produced using either renewable or non-renewable energy sources. A suggested benefit of large-scale deployment of hydrogen vehicles is that it could lead to decreased emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors. [37] According to the United States Department of Energy "Producing hydrogen from natural gas does result in some greenhouse gas emissions. When compared to ICE vehicles using gasoline, however, fuel cell vehicles using hydrogen produced from natural gas reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60%. [38] While methods of hydrogen production that do not use fossil fuel would be more sustainable, [39] currently renewable energy represents only a small percentage of energy generated, and power produced from renewable sources can be used in electric vehicles and for non-vehicle applications. [40] The challenges facing the use of hydrogen in vehicles include production, storage, transport and distribution. The well-to-wheel efficiency for hydrogen, because of all these challenges will not exceed 25%. [41][42][43] [ edit ] Production For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen production . The molecular hydrogen needed as an on-board fuel for hydrogen vehicles can be obtained through many thermochemical methods utilizing natural gas , coal (by a process known as coal gasification), liquefied petroleum gas , biomass ( biomass gasification ), by a process called thermolysis , or as a microbial waste product called biohydrogen or Biological hydrogen production . Most of today's hydrogen is produced using fossil energy resources, [44] and 85% of hydrogen produced is used to remove sulfur from gasoline. Hydrogen can also be produced from water by electrolysis or by chemical reduction using chemical hydrides or aluminum. [45] Current technologies for manufacturing hydrogen use energy in various forms, totaling between 25 and 50 percent of the higher heating value of the hydrogen fuel, used to produce, compress or liquefy, and transmit the hydrogen by pipeline or truck. [46] Environmental consequences of the production of hydrogen from fossil energy resources include the emission of greenhouse gases , a consequence that would also result from the on-board reforming of methanol into hydrogen. [41] Studies comparing the environmental consequences of hydrogen production and use in fuel-cell vehicles to the refining of petroleum and combustion in conventional automobile engines find a net reduction of ozone and greenhouse gases in favor of hydrogen. [37] Hydrogen production using renewable energy resources would not create such emissions or, in the case of biomass, would create near-zero net emissions assuming new biomass is grown in place of that converted to hydrogen. However the same land could be used to create Biodiesel , usable with (at most) minor alterations to existing well developed and relatively efficient diesel engines. In either case, the scale of renewable energy production today is small and would need to be greatly expanded to be used in producing hydrogen for a significant part of transportation needs. [47] As of December 2008, less than 3 percent of U.S. electricity was produced from renewable sources, not including dams. [48] In a few countries, renewable sources are being used more widely to produce energy and hydrogen. For example, Iceland is using geothermal power to produce hydrogen, [49] and Denmark is using wind. [50] [ edit ] Storage For more details on this topic, see Hydrogen storage . Compressed hydrogen storage mark Hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at ambient conditions, equal to about one-third that of methane. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic tank or in a compressed hydrogen storage tank , the volumetric energy density (megajoules per liter) is small relative to that of gasoline. Hydrogen has a three times higher energy density by mass compared to gasoline (143 MJ/kg versus 46.9 MJ/kg). Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and at lower pressures. A recent study by Dutch researcher Robin Gremaud has shown that metal hydride hydrogen tanks are actually 40 to 60-percent lighter than an equivalent energy battery pack on an electric vehicle permitting greater range for H2 cars. [51
  • Having spent 30 years investigating and developing alternative technologies we believe that Full hybrid is the right solution
  • Our Full Hybrids deliver the best of all efficiency technology
  • And what about Toyota Hybrid. Well it is the most proven technology with... • Over 3 million of our Hybrid vehicles sold world-wide • 3 Billion miles of real world driving • 13 years on the road Now in 3rd generation of technology Awards and recognition: • Engine of the year award for 5 consecutive years (2004 to 2008) • No. 1 in J.D. Power customer satisfaction surveys for 4 consecutive years (2007, 2008, 2009, RX450h 2010/ 2011). We also know that it is reliable – customers can be assured that buying a Toyota Full Hybrid is not a risky purchase
  • Toyota & Lexus Proposition

    1. 1. Brendon Lansdowne BUSINESS CENTRE MANAGER DINGLES TOYOTA NORWICH The Toyota & Lexus Proposition
    2. 2. Built in Britain Established in 1989 Burnaston – vehicle manufacturing: Avensis and Auris Deeside – engine manufacturing £1.85 billion invested 3,000 employees 1996 be awarded ISO 14001 Environmental Management System 2002 achieve Zero waste to landfill 2008 achieve Zero waste to incineration 2010 produce Hybrids in Europe 2011 install large solar array, the largest in Britain 1st UK automotive plant to…
    3. 3. Built in Britain… … Auris HSD and Avensis
    4. 4. Toyota GB and Lexus based in Epsom <ul><ul><li>350 employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>185 Toyota dealerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>70 dedicated Business Centres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 Lexus dealerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 dedicated Business Centres </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. The company vision <ul><li>… are a company that is chosen by customers and wants customers to be happy they chose us </li></ul>lead the way in the future of mobility, delivering the safest most responsible products Akio Toyoda PRESIDENT TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION
    6. 6. Annual research & development spend $ billions
    7. 7. Our philosophy… The RIGHT vehicle At the RIGHT place At the RIGHT time
    8. 8. Towards the ultimate eco-car… Sustainable Mobility Hybrid Technology Energy diversity CO 2 reduction Air quality Petrol, Diesel Gaseous Fuels Biofuels Synthetic Fuels Electricity Hydrogen
    9. 9. Cleanest car company in Europe Sustainable recycling 5 Sustainable logistics and operations Sustainable retailers Sustainable manufacturing plants Sustainable product development 4 3 1 2 Low Carbon Company
    10. 10. Toyota is the top global green brand Source: Interbrand - Best Global Green Brands 2011
    11. 11. Newest and Cleanest Model line up with Toyota Optimal Drive and Hybrid CO 2 emissions figures <g/km> Verso 2.0 D-4D 141 - 160 121 - 140 100 - 120 <100 <90 Prius AYGO 1.0l Urban Cruiser 1.33 S&S New Auris 1.33 S&S Avensis 2.0 D-4D New Auris HSD 89 89 iQ 1.0l 99 106 129 135 139 143 Yaris 1.33 120 New RAV4 2.2D-4D AWD 154 CT 200h 94 RX450h 145
    12. 13. The result – 11 years at the top
    13. 14. Hybrid Technology
    14. 15. Why is Hybrid the best solution?
    15. 16. Toyota environmental heritage 1960 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 1 st Fuel Cell vehicle 1996 1997 RAV4-EV Prius 1998 e-com 1975 Century Gas turbine Hybrid 2003 Prius 2 nd generation 2005 Lexus RX400h 2006 Lexus GS450h 2007 2009 2011 Lexus LS600h Lexus RX450h Prius 3 rd generation 2011 Auris Hybrid 2012 CT 200h 2012 Yaris Hybrid Prius Plug-In Prius+ Start of Hybrid Car development 1969 1977 S800 Gas turbine Hybrid
    16. 17. Diesel Advantages Durable Good variety Good driveability Good torque Good MPG Disadvantages Heavy Noisy (relative) Expensive to repair Fuel price penatly Expensive to build Inherently ‘dirty’ high NO x & particulate matter
    17. 18. Emissions and air quality Source: VCA 03/11 NO x emissions mg/km CT 200h SE-I 118d SE Auto A3 2.0 TDi SE 140 S-tronic Golf GT 2.0 TDi 140PS 5dr DSG Focus 2.0 TDCi 5dr Zetec Auto Particulates emissions mg/km CT 200h SE-I 118d SE Auto A3 2.0 TDi SE 140 S-tronic Golf GT 2.0 TDi 140PS 5dr DSG Focus 2.0 TDCi 5dr Zetec Auto
    18. 19. Petrol Advantages Durable Good variety Powerful Reasonably light Cheap to build Cheap to repair Disadvantages Fuel costs CO 2 production
    19. 20. Pure EV Advantages Quiet Cheaper fuelling Zero vehicle emissions Disadvantages Cost of vehicle Battery size and weight Unproven technology Range anxiety Charging points Charging times RV’s difficult to establish Service & repair
    20. 21. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Advantages Compact fuel source ‘ Zero’ emissions Cheap to refuel Disadvantages Huge cost of vehicle Short service life Fragile storage Low temperature No infrastructure Low energy output Potential range anxiety
    21. 22. Full Hybrid is the right solution Utilising the advantages of the available technologies Economical Extremely clean Quiet and smooth
    22. 23. Not all Hybrids are the same Engine Stop Start Regenerative braking Motor-assist EV Drive Engine Stop Start Regenerative braking Motor-assist Engine Stop Start Regenerative braking Engine Stop Start Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive Lexus Hybrid Drive Example: Honda IMA Example: BMW Efficient Dynamics Example: iQ, Aygo Optimising existing technology Hybrid technology Full Hybrid Mild Micro Stop & Start
    23. 24. Benefits of Hybrid Higher Efficiency Better fuel economy Lower SMR Environmental Benefits Low emissions (CO 2 , NO x , PM, HC) Quietness Electric driving Dynamic Performance Power & acceleration Full Hybrid
    24. 25. Toyota & Lexus Hybrid : a well proven technology 18 million tones of CO 2 emissions saved 3 million units sold worldwide
    25. 26. Whole Life Cycle assessment CO 2 emissions 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 Impact Index CO 2 -25% Petrol Vehicle Diesel Vehicle Hybrid Vehicle Material Production Vehicle Production Driving Disposal Maintenance -33% ISO 14040 methodology
    26. 27. <ul><li>Future proof – already below proposed No x targets for Euro VI emission standards </li></ul><ul><li>Best-in-class CO 2 emissions = maximum tax advantages for Fleet owners and company car drivers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower National Insurance contributions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower drivers Benefit in Kind Tax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No VED – Auris HSD, Prius, CT 200h </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free from the London Congestion Charge – Auris HSD, Prius, CT 200h </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>100% writedown – Auris HSD, Prius, CT 200h </li></ul></ul></ul>Class-leading cost of ownership £
    27. 28. Lowest-in-class service, maintenance, repair costs (SMR) <ul><li>Servicing costs are minimised, Hybrid components are maintenance free: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No starter motor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No alternator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No clutch </li></ul></ul></ul>Maintenance-free timing chain Low cost paper element oil filter Miniaturised spark plugs No drive belts = improved reliability on top of cost savings
    28. 29. <ul><li>Low CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Great fuel economy </li></ul><ul><li>10% Company Car Tax (BIK) </li></ul><ul><li>£0 Road tax </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt from London Congestion Charge </li></ul><ul><li>Zero exhaust emissions driving: EV Mode </li></ul><ul><li>Proven reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Low running costs </li></ul>Toyota Hybrid Synergy Drive
    29. 30. Our Hybrid Range CT 200h GS 450h LS 600h / LS 600h L RX 450h Auris Hybrid Prius