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  1. 1.
  2. 2. WELCOME<br />Course Seminar on<br />National rural employment guarantee act (nrega)<br />Presented by:<br />NirupamBiswas<br />ID No. X-0748<br />Advised by:<br />Dr. K. Ghadei<br />Lecturer<br />Department of Extension Education<br /> Institute of Agricultural Sciences<br /> B.H.U.<br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br /> An act to provide for the enhancement of livelihood security of the households in rural areas of the country by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in every financial year to every household.<br /> This is the largest ever public employment programme visualized in human history.<br /> Enacted on August 25, 2005; came into force on February 2, 2006.<br />
  4. 4. Wage Employment Programmes (WEP)<br />National Rural Employment Programme (NREP): 1980-89<br />Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP): 1983-89<br />Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY): 1989-99<br />Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS): 1993-99<br />Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY):1999-2002<br />Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (SGRY): Since September 2001<br />National Food For Work Programme (NFFWP): Launched on November 14, 2004<br />National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA): 2005<br />From Programme to Act<br />
  5. 5. Employment Guarantee Act: TheBasic Idea<br />The Employment Guarantee Act<br />is a step towards the right to<br />work, as an aspect of the<br />fundamental right to live with<br />dignity.<br />
  6. 6. The right to work as a “fundamentalright”<br /> The “right to life”is a fundamental right of<br />all citizens under Article 21 of the Indian<br />Constitution.<br /> “Right to life… includes the right to live<br />with human dignity, it would include all<br />these aspects which would make life<br />meaningful, complete and living.”<br />(Supreme Court)<br />
  7. 7. The right to work in the “DirectivePrinciples” of the Constitution<br /> “The State shall… direct its policy<br />towards securing that the citizen, men<br />and women equally, have the right to an<br />adequate means of livelihood…” (Article<br />39A)<br /> “The State shall … make effective<br />provision for securing the right to work…”<br />(Article 41)<br />
  9. 9. Can EGS stop Distressed Migration?<br />91% migrating HH said that they prefer work at home if it is continuous and at the minimum wage rate, 100 days may not be adequate.<br />Migration is an old tradition with some advantages, so, adequate compensation is needed to prevent them from migrating.<br />EGS may improve wages and working conditions of the migrants.<br />
  10. 10. NREGA GOALS<br />Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups by providing a fall-back employment source, when other employment alternatives are scare or inadequate<br />Growth engine for sustainable development of an agricultural economy<br />Empowerment of Rural poor through the processes of a rights-based Law.<br />
  11. 11. Objectives of NREGA<br />The basic objective of the Act is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by<br />Providing at least 100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every BPL & APL household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work<br />This work guarantee can also serves other objectives like<br />Generating productive assets, <br />Protecting the environment, empowering rural women, <br />Reducing rural urban migration and fostering social equity, among others.<br />
  12. 12. NREGA 2005 in a Nutshell<br />The National Rural Employment<br />Guarantee Act 2005 is a law whereby:<br />any adult who is willing to do unskilled<br />manual work at the minimum wage<br />is entitled to being employed on local<br />public works within 15 days of<br />applying.<br />
  13. 13. Who is eligible?<br /> Anyone above the age of 18<br /> who resides in rural areas.<br />
  14. 14. Is there a limit on the number ofdays of work?<br />Yes: 100 days per household<br /> per year.<br />Each nuclear family counts as a<br /> separate “household”.<br />
  15. 15. The Unemployment Allowance<br />If employment is not provided within 15<br />days, the applicant is entitled to an<br />unemployment allowance:<br />At least one fourth of the minimum<br />wage for the first 30 days.<br />At least one half of the minimum wage<br />thereafter.<br />
  16. 16. Where will the work be provided?<br />Within 5 kilometres of the<br /> applicant’s residence, as far as<br /> possible.<br />If work is provided beyond 5<br /> kilometres, a travel allowance<br /> has to be paid.<br />
  17. 17. What is the minimum wage due toNREGA labourers?<br />Labourers are entitled to the<br /> statutory minimum wage for<br /> agricultural labourers in the state,<br /> unless the Central Government<br /> “notifies” a different norm.<br />If the Central Government notifies,<br /> the norm is subject to a minimum of<br /> Rs 60/day.<br />
  18. 18. How and when are wages to bepaid?<br />Weekly, or in any case not later<br /> than a fortnight.<br />Directly to the person<br /> concerned, in front of the<br /> community.<br />
  19. 19. Mandatory worksite facilities<br /> Drinking water<br /> Shade<br /> Medical aid<br /> Creche if more than five children below<br /> age 6 are present<br />Note: These facilities are to be provided by<br />the implementing agency.<br />
  20. 20. Panchayat<br />MCC<br />Progress Report<br />Work SU Intimation<br />Closure Report<br />Muster Roll<br />Work Site<br />Work Execution<br />Shelf of Works<br />1<br />3<br />Generate <br /> Comm Letter<br /> Mtrl SO<br /> Work Sty<br />2<br />Grouping of Wage seekers<br />5<br />Work progress monitoring<br />Wage computation based on outturn<br />Material and Effort Re-Estimation <br />Modifications to wage rates, muster rolls.<br />6<br />4<br />7<br />
  21. 21. Fund & Accounts Management<br />Fund Allocation Note<br />Work Startup Order<br />Fund Status Report<br />MCC<br />Wage<br />Payment for material delivered<br />Material Suppliers<br />Wage Seekers<br />Gram Panchayat<br />Fund receipt, transfer<br />Advances<br />Claims<br />Savings Account Mgt<br />Maint of ledgers<br />Period financial reports<br />
  22. 22. Gender-related provisions<br />WOMEN 46.54%<br />At least 1/3rd of the beneficiaries shall be women who have registered and requested for work under the Scheme(NREGA ACT, Schedule II, Section 6)till March 2008<br />OTHERS 53.45%<br />
  23. 23. Key Processes: Demand for Employment<br />Rural Household<br />Registration Application Gram Panchayat<br /> (GP)<br />Verification- local residence not<br /> poverty, employment<br />Registration<br />Employment Demand<br />GP<br />Job Card HH<br />Dated Receipt<br />Work allocation<br />15 days of Demand<br />Else Unemployment <br />Allowance<br />Facilities:<br />Creche,medical aid,water<br />Work- Site<br />Muster roll with Job Card Nos.<br /> Measurement<br />Wages-15 days<br />
  24. 24. Key Processes:Selection of Works<br />Gram Panchayat finalises<br />Village Plan<br />Gram Sabha Recommends<br />-Block- Panchayat<br />Consolidates village<br /> Plans:Block Plan<br />Programme Officer<br />Other agencies<br /> Programme Coordinator- District-Panchayat<br /> Final shelf of Projects<br /><ul><li>Water conservation, land development</li></ul>Afforestation,roads, other works<br /><ul><li>60:40, labour:material
  25. 25. No contractors,machinery</li></li></ul><li>Concerns<br />Bogus Registrations <br /><ul><li>Registration of non-living persons, minors and medically unfit
  26. 26. Duplicate and/or Proxy Registrations
  27. 27. Fictitious Registrations</li></ul>Inflated Schemes<br /><ul><li>Inflated Quantity of Work
  28. 28. Depressed Productivity
  29. 29. Inflated Person Day estimates</li></ul>Fraudulent Requisition of Funds <br /><ul><li>False Measurement
  30. 30. Inflated Progress of Works
  31. 31. Omitting an operation or work item</li></ul>Inflated Muster<br /><ul><li>Ghost Workmen
  32. 32. Bogus Attendance</li></ul>Fraudulent Wage Payment <br /><ul><li>Under Payments
  33. 33. Dependant Fraudulent Payments</li></li></ul><li>16/11/06<br />26<br />Discriminations<br />Incidences of discrimination on the basis of caste, community, disability and proximity to Sarpanch, Panchayat Secretary and Officials have been noticed. <br />BPL families were given preference over others <br />Women were discouraged to get registered. <br />Aged and physically challenged persons were not provided registration forms in some places.<br />
  34. 34. TRANSPARENCY ANDACCOUNTABILITY<br /> All NREGA-related documents to be<br /> available for public scrutiny.<br /> Copies of documents to be made<br /> available at nominal cost.<br /> Muster rolls to be pro-actively displayed<br /> at Panchayat Bhawan.<br /> Documents can also be obtained under<br /> the Right to Information Act.<br />
  35. 35. Social Audits<br /> Gram Sabhas to conduct social audits of<br /> all works taken up within Gram<br />Panchayat<br /> All relevant documents to be provided to<br /> the Gram Sabha by the Gram Panchayat<br /> and other implementing agencies<br />
  36. 36. 4/15/2009<br />Ministry of Rural Development<br />29<br />If the Act delivers..<br />Mitigate hard times<br />Household earnings may increase through 100 days supplement<br />Strengthen natural resource base of livelihood and build community assets<br />Quantum of fiscal resources needed for wage employment programmes may reduce <br />Because of better targeting-Mirror of Poverty<br />Possible spin off:<br /> - more schooling for children of migrant families,<br /> - Women greater participation in work force:more voice?<br />
  37. 37. STAKEHOLDERS<br /> Key Stakeholders are:<br />Wage seekers<br />Gram Sabha<br />PRIs, specially the gram panchayat<br />Programme Officer at the block level<br />District Programme Coordinator<br />State Government<br />Ministry of Rural Development <br />
  38. 38. Key Issues in NREGA<br />We welcome the landmark legislation of the NREGA which has potential to provide income security, poverty reduction and develop the backward rural areas<br />To succeed in intent and potential of NREGA the following key aspects merit attention to plan and implement the NREGA<br />Corruption<br />Wages<br />Works <br />Monitoring <br />Human Capacity<br />
  39. 39. PERMISSIBLE WORKS<br />The Works permissible under NREG are :<br />Water conservation and water harvesting;<br />drought proofing, including afforestation and tree plantation;<br />irrigation canals, including micro and minor irrigation works;<br />provision of irrigation facility, plantation, horticulture, land development to land owned by households belonging to the SC/ST, or to land of the beneficiaries of land reforms, or to land of the beneficiaries under the IndiraAwas Yojana/BPL families<br />
  40. 40. PERMISSIBLE WORKS contd…<br />renovation of traditional water bodies, including de-silting of tanks;<br />land development;<br />flood-control and protection works, including drainage in waterlogged areas;<br />rural connectivity to provide all-weather access. The construction of roads may include culverts where necessary, and within the village area may be taken up along with drains. Care should be taken not to take up roads included in the PMGSY network under NREGA. No cement concrete roads should be taken up under NREGA. Priority should be given to roads that give access to SC/ST habitations;<br />any other work that may be notified by the Central Government in consultation with the State Government.<br />
  41. 41. Tribal Development & Agriculture Deptt<br />All Tribal agriculturists are entitled for <br /> Works related to land development.<br /> Works that provide irrigation including micro irrigation facility to tribal agriculturists.<br />Horticulture projects.<br />Works like cannel and channel digging.<br />Providing pipelines to the field of agriculturists.<br />Irrigation wells <br />
  42. 42. Contd…..<br />Earth work related activities where village is adopted.<br />Eco friendly activities ,establishment of model nurseries<br />Checking salinity in coastal areas <br />Reclamation of saline and alkaline soils<br />Rain fed area development <br />Water shed development<br />Land development of hilly areas <br />
  43. 43. Works related to RKVY can be taken up under NREGA<br />Development of Horticulture Farms<br />Plantation of Date ,Palm ,Jetropha and Sandal<br />Treatment of saline and water logged areas.<br />Labour intensive and earth work related ,land development activities for quality seed protection. <br />
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  53. 53. NREGS: Success Story of Hardoi<br />Name of Work – Renovation of Kakhraiya Pond at Gram<br />Bahmanakheda,Block- Ahirori,Year – 2006-07<br />Executing Agency- Block Ahirori,Cost of the work – 1.126<br /> Lakh.<br />MandaysCreated- 1300<br />Benefit of the Project – It is useful for recharging the ground<br /> water, for drinking water for animals, for irrigation purpose as<br /> well as it has provided the employment to the local labourers.<br />
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  55. 55. 4/15/2009<br />NREGA,2005<br />48<br />Serious accidents at work site <br />If any person employed under the scheme is or child accompanying any person injured ; he/she shall be entitled to free of charge medical treatment.<br />During the period of hospitalization of injured worker.<br /><ul><li>Accommodation, treatment and medicines &
  56. 56. Half of the wage per day to be paid to injured person. </li></li></ul><li>4/15/2009<br />NREGA,2005<br />49<br />Serious accidents at work site continued………..<br />If a person employed under a scheme<br /><ul><li> dies or
  57. 57. becomes permanent disabled by the accident at site</li></ul> The legal heirs of the deceased or the disabled shall be paid an ex gratia payment at the rate of Rs.25000 By the Central government.<br />
  58. 58. OUTCOMES [field reports]<br />Reduction in distress out-migration due to availability of additional income and work<br />creation and repair of rural infrastructure like roads and water bodies<br />Retention of children in school and purchase of books for them<br />Greater interest in local area development due to flow of funds and village meetings<br />Changing local dynamics in many places with the recognition by workers that they are right holders <br />Expansion in membership and activities of workers’ and peasant organizations<br />
  59. 59. Recommendations:<br />Information, education and communication<br />Capacity building of the PRI staff and elected members<br />Recruitment of technical persons at GP level<br />Diversification in the NREG works<br />Supervision<br />
  60. 60. CONCLUSION<br />Teething trouble apart, the same forces of fiscal conservatism that earlier tried to dilute the Act are now trying to curtail entitlements and minimize expenditure.<br />However, the NREGA offers an unprecedented opportunity to initiate broad-based growth through poverty reducing employment generationand consequent demand expansion. <br />Therefore, some recent reports of mobilization and struggles by rural workers for the full and properimplementation of the NREGA is good news!<br />
  61. 61. THANK YOU<br />