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Data, Information System, Processing

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  • 1. Introduction to Computers
    Module 1. ECE –B
  • 2. Contents
    Definition of data.
    Information and Processing.
    Basic Computer Operations.
    Applications of information systems.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    2
  • 3. Definition of Data
    Usually the term 'data' suggests something raw and unrefined.
    Its the most fundamental form of information.
    Information in raw or unorganized form (such as alphabets, numbers, or symbols) that refer to, or represent, conditions, ideas, or objects.
    Data is limitless and present everywhere in the universe.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    3
  • 4. Information
    Data that
    has been verified to be accurate and timely,
    is specific and organized for a purpose,
    is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and
    that can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.
    The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behavior, decision, or outcome.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    4
  • 5. Processing
    Process or processing typically describes the action of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures
    It can be the steps to convert the action from one form to another, such as processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan, processing milk into cheese, or converting computer data from one form to another.
    A process involves steps and decisions in the way work is accomplished
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    5
  • 6. Processing in technically refers to any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information.
    The process may be automated and run on a computer.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    6
  • 7. Applications of Information systems
    Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study.
    Some of its applications include:
    Geographic information system
    Hospital information system
    Airline information system
    Hotel information system
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    7
  • 8. Introduction to structured programming
    Flow Chart
    Pseudo code
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    8
  • 9. What is a Flow Chart?
    A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process.
    Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step.
    The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    9
  • 10. A really simplistic flow chart showing the flow chart symbols described above can be seen above.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    10
  • 11. A Note on Flowchart Symbols
    Different flow chart symbols have different meanings. The most common flow chart symbols are:
    Terminator: An oval flow chart shape indicating the start or end of the process.
    Process: A rectangular flow chart shape indicating a normal process flow step.
    Decision: A diamond flow chart shape indication a branch in the process flow.
    Connector: A small, labeled, circular flow chart shape used to indicate a jump in the process flow.
    Data: A parallelogram that indicates data input or output (I/O) for a process.
    Document: used to indicate a document or report.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    11
  • 12. 01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    12
  • 13. Pseudocode
    An outline of a program, written in a form that can easily be converted into real programming statements.
    Pseudocode cannot be compiled nor executed, and there are no real formatting or syntax rules
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    13
  • 14. Why use pseudocode?
    Once pseudocode is created, it is simple to translate it into real programming code.
    Opportunity to detect any logic error prior to actual coding, which is a lot more expensive and time consuming.
    Used for planning the programming.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    14
  • 15. Example
    Read student name.
    Get system date .
    Read student ID number.
    Get order for the books.
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    15
  • 16. Mathematical symbols in Pseudocode:
    The following symbols can be used in pseudocode:
    + for Add,
    - for Subtract,
    * for Multiply,
    / for Divide,
    ( ) for Parentheses
    Compute C = (F - 32) * 5 / 9
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    16
  • 17. Common Action Keywords
    Several keywords are often used to indicate common input, output, and processing operations.
    Input: READ, OBTAIN, GET Output: PRINT, DISPLAY, SHOW Compute: COMPUTE, CALCULATE, DETERMINE Initialize: SET, INIT Add one: INCREMENT, BUMP
    01-Aug-11
    Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT
    17
  • 18. Revision