Data, Information System, Processing

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Data, Information System, Processing

  1. 1. Introduction to Computers<br />Module 1. ECE –B <br />
  2. 2. Contents<br />Definition of data.<br />Information and Processing.<br />Basic Computer Operations.<br />Applications of information systems.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Definition of Data<br />Usually the term 'data' suggests something raw and unrefined.<br />Its the most fundamental form of information.<br />Information in raw or unorganized form (such as alphabets, numbers, or symbols) that refer to, or represent, conditions, ideas, or objects. <br />Data is limitless and present everywhere in the universe.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Information<br />Data that<br /> has been verified to be accurate and timely,<br /> is specific and organized for a purpose, <br /> is presented within a context that gives it meaning and relevance, and <br /> that can lead to an increase in understanding and decrease in uncertainty.<br /> The value of information lies solely in its ability to affect a behavior, decision, or outcome.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Processing<br />Process or processing typically describes the action of taking something through an established and usually routine set of procedures <br />It can be the steps to convert the action from one form to another, such as processing paperwork to grant a mortgage loan, processing milk into cheese, or converting computer data from one form to another. <br />A process involves steps and decisions in the way work is accomplished<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Processing in technically refers to any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. <br />The process may be automated and run on a computer.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Applications of Information systems<br />Information Systems is an academic/professional discipline bridging the business field and the well-defined computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific area of study. <br />Some of its applications include:<br />Geographic information system<br />Hospital information system<br />Airline information system<br />Hotel information system<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Introduction to structured programming<br />Flow Chart<br />Pseudo code<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />8<br />
  9. 9. What is a Flow Chart?<br />A flow chart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process.<br /> Each step in the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description of the process step. <br />The flow chart symbols are linked together with arrows showing the process flow direction. <br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />9<br />
  10. 10. A really simplistic flow chart showing the flow chart symbols described above can be seen above.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />10<br />
  11. 11. A Note on Flowchart Symbols<br />Different flow chart symbols have different meanings. The most common flow chart symbols are:<br />Terminator: An oval flow chart shape indicating the start or end of the process.<br />Process: A rectangular flow chart shape indicating a normal process flow step.<br />Decision: A diamond flow chart shape indication a branch in the process flow.<br />Connector: A small, labeled, circular flow chart shape used to indicate a jump in the process flow.<br />Data: A parallelogram that indicates data input or output (I/O) for a process.<br />Document: used to indicate a document or report.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />11<br />
  12. 12. 01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Pseudocode<br />An outline of a program, written in a form that can easily be converted into real programming statements.<br />Pseudocode cannot be compiled nor executed, and there are no real formatting or syntax rules<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Why use pseudocode?<br />Once pseudocode is created, it is simple to translate it into real programming code.<br />Opportunity to detect any logic error prior to actual coding, which is a lot more expensive and time consuming.<br />Used for planning the programming. <br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />14<br />
  15. 15. Example<br />Read student name.<br />Get system date .<br />Read student ID number.<br />Get order for the books.<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Mathematical symbols in Pseudocode:<br /> The following symbols can be used in pseudocode: <br />+ for Add,<br /> - for Subtract, <br />* for Multiply, <br />/ for Divide, <br />( ) for Parentheses <br />Compute C = (F - 32) * 5 / 9 <br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Common Action Keywords<br /> Several keywords are often used to indicate common input, output, and processing operations.<br /> Input: READ, OBTAIN, GET Output: PRINT, DISPLAY, SHOW Compute: COMPUTE, CALCULATE, DETERMINE Initialize: SET, INIT Add one: INCREMENT, BUMP<br />01-Aug-11<br />Usha Mary Sharma, DBCET. Dept of CS & IT<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Revision<br />

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