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Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
Man and culture  mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013
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Man and culture mid term exam. tri.1 yr.2013

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  1. MAN AND CULTURE MID-TERM EXAM Terms Definitions genes and environment why do humans appear to be different? no we are all homo sapiens are humans that different? tool making, language, art, culture, religion what besides biology defines humans? 40,000 years ago/ evolution through behavior How and when did we become modern? South Africa, 100,000 years ago believed to be homo sapiens, jaw like homo sapiens, base of mouth of a river and faces east, modern human appearance Why is the fossil from Classys River mouth important? Why is this site perfect? Where is this site? Africa What is the birthplace of all humans? all originated there and migrated all over the World What is the "Out of Africa" theory? Alan Thorne found skulls of Homo Erectus and Homo Sapiens Why is Mungo Australia important? Homo Erectus evolved to Homo Sapiens through local development What is Alan Thorne's theory? died out or algamated, meat What happened to Neanderthals? What was the basis of their diet? 40,000 years How long did they inhabit the caves in France? short stocky, hunters for meat and hide, caves How were the Neanderthals shaped by the iceage? died out or became Homo Sapiens What is the place of Neanderthals in evolutionary history? increased intelligence and culture/behavior takes over What shapes the key to emergence in Homo Sapiens? they both lived there so we can compare them Why is the Middle East important for Neandertals and Homo Sapiens?
  2. Homo Sapiens had better knowledge of their environment/ Neandertals were cave dwellers so they stayed stationary How were Neandertals different from Homo Sapiens? central area where everyone passed through What happened 60,000 to 90,000 years ago in the Middle East? food, shelter, natural resources What did Homo Sapiens and Neandertals compete for? see who/what was coming towards them such as herds of animals Why were sites that were elevated important? died out but never lived on high ground, pushed out of their areas/lands, no advance warning of animals coming through What happened to Neandertals? technology - types of tools, projectile points put on wood What changed the way of life for Homo Sapiens? rock art, place to live Why were rock overhangs important? used natural shape of the caves, spitting charcoal on the walls How was this art created? people lived there 60,000 years ago, Australia Why is Allen's cave important? Where is it? Upper Paleolithic last part of the Old Stone Age, 10,000 to 40,000 years ago, featuring tool industries characterized by long slim blades and an explosion of creative symbolic forms multiregional hypothesis hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simulataneous local transition from Homo Erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world recent African origins hypothesis the hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic Homo Sapiens from Africa who migrated out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, replacing all other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities robust austro Several species within the genus Australopithecus, who lived from 1.1 to 2.5 million years ago in eastern and southern Africa; known for the rugged nature of their chewing apparatus (large back teeth, large chewing muscles, and a bony ridge on their skull tops for the insertion of these large muscles). recent African origin The hypothesis that all modern people are derived from one single population of archaic H. sapiens from Africa who migrated out of Africa after 100,000 years ago, eplacing all
  3. other archaic forms due to their superior cultural capabilities. Also called the Eve or out of Africa hypothesis. multiregional hypothesis The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from Homo erectus to Homo sapiens throughout the inhabited world. gracile Members of the genus Australopithecus possessing a more lightly built chewing apparatus; likely had a diet that included more meat than that of the robust australopithecines. there is more than one model of evolutionary change present a close look at genetics and fossil record indicate: gradualism The Darwinian evolutionary model is called: 65 million years ago When did the mass extinction of dinasours occur? hominoid Which term below means "resemblance to humans"? gibbons Which fossil apes were believed to have been the first to diverge from a common ancestor? 4.3 and 1.1 million years ago The australopithecine group flourished in Africa between is a cultural as well as biological phenomenon Human childbirth: decorated figurines Which objects are associated frequently with Upper Paleolithic art? recent african origins hypothesis The use of mitochondrial DNA has been associated with the: prominent brow ridge All of the following characteristics are associated with anatomically-modern humans except gene flow What integrating effect has become so powerful that dramatic regional variations no longer exist? true Species are reproductively isolated true Many paleontologists now believe that Ardipithecus was a biped not in the direct line of later human ancestry. true Later human species have all been overwhelmingly right- handed. true Transitional species fossils have been found at Atapuerca, Spain. true Both arguments associated with the appearance of
  4. anatomically modern humans place human origins firmly in Africa. true Today, all humans are members of a single species. Ancient Civilizations 1 People who study and write about the human past are called _____. A) teachers B) fossils C) anthropologists D) historians 2 Paleolithic is a term meaning _____. A) new stone B) old stone C) Ice Age D) new technology 3 _____ is a period known as the New Stone Age. A) Paleolithic B) Ice Age C) Neolithic D) Jericho 4
  5. Groups of people who move from place to place are called _____. A) historians B) anthropologists C) nomads D) astronomers 5 Mesopotamian farmers developed a system of __________ to control the flow of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. A) flooding B) irrigation C) cuneiform D) city-states 6 Sumerians developed a number system based on __________, which we still use today. A) 4 B) 12 C) 60 D) 100 7 Around 2340 B.C., Sargon conquered all of Mesopotamia and established the world's first __________. A) city-state B) civilization C) farming village D) empire
  6. 8 The Assyrian army was the first to use __________, which made it a fearsome and mighty force. A) copper B) iron C) tin D) steel 9 The Assyrian Empire was divided into political districts called __________. A) provinces B) city-states C) states D) caravans 10 Babylon's location on the major trade route between the Persian Gulf and the __________ helped it become a wealthy city. A) Red Sea B) Arabian Sea C) Mediterranean Sea D) Atlantic Ocean 1. Homo erectus fossils have been found in which of the following regions? (Note: For this and the following questions, Homo erectus is meant to include both Homo ergaster and Homo erectus.) a) East Africa b) South Africa c) South Asia
  7. d) all of the above 2. Which of the following statements is true of Homo erectus evolution? a) They remained largely unchanged anatomically until about 800,000-600,000 years ago. b) Their brain size increased progressively beginning before 1 million years ago on up until they evolved into modern humans. c) neither of the above 3. Which of the following fossils are now considered to be Homo erectus? a) Pithecanthropus erectus b) Sinanthropuspekinensis c) Eugene Dubois d) a and b e) all of the above 4. The first known discovery of a Homo erectus
  8. was in _________ during the 1890's. a) Sumatra and Java b) North China c) East Africa 5. Prior to the 1890's, the oldest known humans were: a) Homo habilis in Africa b) australopithecines in Africa c) Neandertals in Europe 6. Davidson Black was a Canadian anatomy professor who was partly responsible for the first discovery of Homo erectus fossils in: a) China b) Africa c) Europe 7. Which of the following statements is true of Homo erectus?
  9. a) Homo erectus men averaged about 6 feet tall. b) They were anatomically like modern humans below the neck. c) They were primarily quadrupedal. 8. A "supraorbital torus" is a: a) term referring to bones of the hip region b) very prominent brow ridge c) carnivorous species 9. The Homo erectus brain averaged about _______ cubic centimeters in size. a) 631 b) 930 c) 1300-1400 d) 3000-3200
  10. Practice Quiz for Climate Change and Human Evolution No. of Questions= 11 1. The geological epoch during which all human species, beginning with Homo erectus, evolved. a) Pleistocene b) Pliocene c) Holocene d) Paleocene 2. Compared to the Pliocene Epoch, the Pleistocene climate was. a) about the same b) warmer c) colder 3. How many ice ages were there during the Pleistocene Epoch?
  11. a) 1 b) 2 c) 3 d) 4 or more 4. The last ice age ended about how many years ago? a) 40,000 b) 20,000 c) 10,000 d) 1,000 5. What commonly happens to sea levels around the globe when ice ages occur? a) They remain about the same as today. b) They rise significantly. c) They fall significantly. 6. In what hemisphere was most of the glacial ice during the Pleistocene ice ages?
  12. a) western (the Americas) b) northern c) southern 7. A long period of time during which earth's climate cools, causing glaciers to expand out from the poles and mountains covering vast areas. a) glacial b) interglacial c) stadial 8. What commonly happened to the size of mammal bodies during the colder periods of the Pleistocene Epoch? a) They got larger. b) They remained the same. c) They got smaller. 9. What generally happened to the size of human bodies as they evolved in response to the
  13. climate changes of the Pleistocene Epoch? a) They got larger. b) They remained the same. c) They got smaller. 10. The climate that we are living in today could be most accurately described as: a) a glacial b) an interglacial c) neither of the above 11. Which of the following statements is true? a) The first ice ages that our planet experienced occurred during the Pleistocene Epoch. b) Extremely cold periods with ice ages have occurred a number of times over the last half billion years. c) Both humans and dinosaurs lived during the last ice age.
  14. Practice Quiz for Early Human Culture No. of Questions= 10 INSTRUCTIONS: To answer a question, click the button in front of your choice. A response will appear in the window below the question to let you know if you are correct. Be sure to read the feedback. It is designed to help you learn the material. You can also learn by reading the feedback for incorrect answers. 1. Which of the following statements is true concerning tool making? a) Humans are the only tool making and using animals. b) The first stone tool manufacturing and use was probably done by early transitional humans in East Africa 4.5 million years ago. c) The first stone tools were made by Homo erectus. d) none of the above 2. Which of the following tool traditions came first? a) Acheulean b) Oldowan c) Habilian
  15. 3. Oldowan Tradition flake tools were probably used mostly for: a) hammering other rocks to make core tools b) butchering animals c) making necklaces 4. Which of the following statements is true of the first convincing evidence of fire use by humans? a) It was associated with Homo erectus. b) It was associated with Homo habilis. c) It was about 1.5 million years ago. d) It was about 100,000 years ago . 5. The most well knownAcheulean Tradition stone tool was a: a) hand ax b) spear c) meat cleaver
  16. 6. Which of the following statements is true of the Acheulean Tool Tradition? a) Hand axes made up only a small proportion of the tools. b) This tool making tradition was limited to Europe. c) It was not used by Homo erectus in China. 7. Which of the following statements is true of major Homo erectus fossil sites by 400,000 years ago? a) They usually have only a few stone tools. b) They usually have very little evidence of meat eating. c) They have been found only in tropical regions of the world. d) none of the above 8. ______________________ refers to sources of food and the way it is obtained. a) subsistence pattern
  17. b) soft hammer technique c) biocultural evolution 9. Which of the following statements is true of Homo erectus? a) They were efficient, specialized big game hunters. b) There were about 6 billion of them in the world. c) They were the first species in our line of evolution to expand their range into temperate climatic zones. d) none of the above 10. Which of the following statements is true concerning culture? a) It can affect the direction of human biological evolution. b) It has no effect on human biological evolution. c) Since culture is in our minds, it leaves no evidence for paleoanthropologists to dig up.
  18. Practice Quiz for Early Transitional Humans No. of Questions= 5 INSTRUCTIONS: To answer a question, click the button in front of your choice. A response will appear in the window below the question to let you know if you are correct. Be sure to read the feedback. It is designed to help you learn the material. You can also learn by reading the feedback for incorrect answers. 1. Which of the following statements is true of Homo habilis? a) They were in a different genus from the australopithecines. b) They were in a different biological tribe from the australopithecines. c) They were significantly heavier and taller than the late australopithecines. d) a and b e) all of the above 2. The first humans appeared about _______ million years ago. a) 3.5 b) 2.4
  19. c) 1.0 d) .5 3. The fossils of early transitional humans have been found in which of the following areas? a) throughout all of Africa b) South and East Africa c) North Africa 4. The brain size of the early humans: a) was partly within the range of adult chimpanzees b) was partly within the range of adult australopithecines c) was partly within the range of both chimpanzees and australopithecines d) was entirely above the range of both chimpanzees and australopithecines 5. Which of the following anatomical changes were occurring in early transitional humans at the same time that their brains were getting larger?
  20. a) Their teeth were getting larger. b) Their skin color was becoming lighter. c) Their mouths were getting larger. d) a and c e) none of the above 1. What should I know for the reading quiz? 2. Before History The hominids Australopithecus Homo erectus Homo sapiens Economy and society of hunting and gathering peoples Some permanent Paleolithic settlements The origins of agriculture Neolithic era; new stone age; refined tools and agriculture When was the Neolithic Roles of men and women Early agriculture around 9000 B.C.E. Merchants, migrants, and travelers spread food knowledge Slash-and- burn cultivation Population explosion caused by surplus The origins of urban life Emergence of cities Earliest cities in the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, 4000 to 3500 B.C.E 3. Mesopotamia Mesopotamia: "the land between the rivers" Little rain, so area needs irrigation Food supplies increase Human population increases Migrants to the area increase--especially Semites Sumer (in south) becomes population center First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 B.C.E.) Coup against king of Kish Seizes trade routes and natural resources Gradually empire weakens and collapses about 2000 B.C.E. Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.) Centralizes the bureaucracy and regulates taxation Capital is Babylon Law Code: law of retribution and importance of social status Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E. 4. Later Mesopotamia The later Mesopotamian empires Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612 B.C.E. Cities: Assur and Ninevah Powerful army: professional officers (merit), chariots, archers, iron weapons Unpopular rule leads to rebellions; ends 612 B.C.E. New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E. Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.) Hanging gardens of palace shows wealth and luxury 5. The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions Economic specialization and trade Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods further Shipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network develops The
  21. emergence of a stratified patriarchal society Social classes Cities: more opportunities to accumulate wealth Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family and supporters) are highest class Priests and priestesses rule temple communities with large incomes and staff Free commoners (peasants), dependent clients (no property); pay taxes and labor on building projects Slaves (POWs, criminals, debt servitude): mostly domestic servants Patriarchy Hammurabi's code: men are head of the household Women get fewer rights after 2000 B.C.E.; by 1500 B.C.E. are wearing veils 6. The formation of a complex society & cultural traditions, pt II The development of written cultural traditions Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style, becomes standard Reed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay then baked Mostly commercial and tax documents Education: vocational to be scribe or government official Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract (religious and literary like Gilgamesh) 7. The broader influence of Mesopotamian society Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews Early Hebrews are pastoral nomads between Mesopotamia and Egypt (second millennium B.C.E.) Settle in some cities Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E. Descendents borrow law of retribution and flood story from Mesopotamia Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses Twelve tribes become Israelites Mesopotamian-style monarchs with Jerusalem as capital David (1000-970 B.C.E.) then Solomon (970-930 B.C.E.) Moses and monotheism Ten Commandments: moral and ethical standards for followers Compilation of teachings into Torah (1000-400 B.C.E.) Assyrians conquer Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south and destroy Jerusalem Deportees return to Judea; become known as Jews (586 B.C.E.) Prophets in this period increase devotion of people Build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identity 8. The broader influence of Mesopotamian society, pt II The Phoenicians First settlers about 3000 B.C.E.; develop into kingdoms of independent city-states Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods Have early alphabetical script (1500 B.C.E.) 9. Early Africa Egypt and Nubia: "gifts of the Nile" Egypt-- lower third of Nile River; Nubia--middle third of Nile After 5000 B.C.E. peoples cultivate gourds and watermelons, domesticate donkeys and cattle (from Sudan), and grow wheat and barley (from Mesopotamia) Agriculture easy in Egypt (due to Nile flooding) but more work in Nubia States begin to emerge by 4000 B.C.E., small kingdoms by 3300 B.C.E. The unification of Egypt Strong Nubian realm, Ta Seti (3400-3200 B.C.E.) Egypt, large and prosperous state by 3100 B.C.E. Menes at
  22. Memphis unites Upper and Lower Egypt Pharaoh, absolute ruler and owns all land Archaic Period (3100-2660 B.C.E.) and Old Kingdom (2660-2160 B.C.E.) Great pyramids of Giza built during this period; Khufu the largest Violence between Egypt and Nubia (Egypt dominates from 3000-2400 B.C.E.) Nubia later develops into Kingdom of Kush Interaction through diplomacy, Nubian mercenaries, and intermarriage 10. Turmoil and empire Period of upheaval after Old Kingdom (2160- 2040 B.C.E.) Middle Kingdom (2040-1640 B.C.E.) Nomadic horsemen, Hyksos, invade Egypt Using bronze weapons and chariots (Egypt does not have) Captures Memphis in 1674 B.C.E. Causes revolts in Upper Egypt New Kingdom (1550-1070 B.C.E.) Pharaoh gains power, huge army, large bureaucracy Building projects: temples, palaces, statues Tuthmosis III (1479-1425 B.C.E.) built empire including Palestine, Syrian, Nubia Then Egypt falls into a long period of decline Egyptians driven out of Nubia in 1100 B.C.E. Nubian Kingdom of Kush; capital is Napata King Kashta conquers Thebes (in Egypt) in 760 B.C.E. Assyrians with iron weapons invade from the north After sixth century B.C.E. series of foreign conquests 11. The formation of complex societies & cultural traditions The emergence of cities and stratified societies Cities are not as prominent in Egypt as in Mesopotamia (agricultural villages) Memphis, head of the delta Thebes, administrative center of Upper Egypt Heliopolis, center of sun god cult Tanis, important sea port on Mediterannean Nubian cities Kerma, dominates trade routes Napata, most prosperous city after Nubian conquest of Egypt Meroë, most influential city after Assyrian invasion because it is farther south Social classes Egypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture), pharaoh, professional military and administrators Nubia: complex and hierarchical society (can tell from tombs) Patriarchy in both but women have more influence than in Mesopotamia Women act as regents, like female pharaoh Hatshepsut Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses, and scribes 12. Economic specialization and trade Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive Iron metallurgy develops independently in Sudan Transportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans Trade networks Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia (ebony, gold, gems, slaves) and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt Egypt and the north: especially wood, like cedar from Lebanon Egypt with Africa: Punt (east Africa) 13. Early writing in the Nile valley Hieroglyphics found on monuments and papyrus by 3200 B.C.E. Hieratic script, everyday writing 2600-600 B.C.E. Demotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek writing Scribes live very privileged lives Nubia adapts Egyptian writing until Meroitic in fifth century B.C.E. (untranslated)
  23. 14. The development of organized religious traditions Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re Brief period of monotheism: Aten Pharaoh Akhenaten's idea of a new capital at Akhetaten Orders all other gods' names chiseled out; their names die with him Mummification At first only pharaohs are mummified (Old Kingdom) Later ruling classes and wealthy can afford it Eventually commoners have it too (Middle and New Kingdom) Cult of Osiris Brother Seth murders Osiris and scatters his body Wife Isis gathers him up and gods restore him to life in underworld Becomes associated with Nile, crops, life/death, immortality Osiris judges the heart of the dead against the feather of truth Nubians combine Egyptian religions with their own 15. Early India Background Neolithic villages in Indus River valley by 3000 B.C.E. Earliest remains inaccessible because of silt deposits and rising water table Also little known because writing not yet translated Foundations of Harappan society The Indus River Runs through north India, with sources at Hindu Kush and the Himalayas Rich deposits but less predictable than the Nile Wheat and barley were cultivated in Indus valley Cultivated cotton before 5000 B.C.E. Complex society of Dravidians, 3000 B.C.E. No evidence about political system Harappa and Mohenjo-daro: two main cities Each city had a fortified citadel and a large granary Broad streets, marketplaces, temples, public buildings Standardized weights, measures, architectural styles, and brick sizes Harappan society and culture Social distinctions, as seen from living styles Religious beliefs strongly emphasized fertility Harappan society declined from 1900 B.C.E. onward Ecological degradation led to a subsistence crisis Another possibility: natural catastrophes such as floods or earthquakes Population began to abandon their cities by about 1700 B.C.E. Almost entirely collapsed by about 1500 B.C.E. Some Harappan cultural traditions maintained 16. The Indo-European migrations and early Aryan India The Aryans and India The early Aryans Depended heavily on a pastoral economy No writing system, but had orally transmitted works called the Vedas Sacred language (Sanskrit) and daily-use language (Prakit) The Vedic Age: 1500-500 B.C.E. A boisterous period; conflicts with indigenous peoples Called indigenous people dasas --"enemies" or "subjectpeople" Indra, the Aryans' war god and military hero Aryan chiefdoms fought ferociously among themselves Most chiefdoms had leader raja, king Aryan migrations in India: first Punjab and by 500 B.C.E. in northern Deccan Used iron tools and developed agriculture Lost tribal organizations but established regional kingdoms 17. Origins of the caste system Caste and varna The meaning of caste : hereditary, unchangeable social classes The Sanskrit word varna, "color," refers to social classes Social distinctions in the late
  24. Vedic Age Four main varnas, recognized after 1000 B.C.E.: brahmins (priests), kshatriyas (warriors and aristocrats), vaishyas (cultivators, artisans, and merchants), shudras (landless peasants and serfs) Later the category of the untouchables was added Subcaste, or jati Represented more elaborate scheme of social classification; developed after the sixth century B.C.E. Jati , or subcastes, were determined by occupations Elaborate rules of jati life: eating, communication, behavior In caste system, social mobility difficult but still possible Usually a result of group, not individual, effort Foreign peoples could find a place in society of the castes 18. Development of patriarchal society Patriarchal and patrilineal society The Lawbook of Manu Prepared by an anonymous sage, first century B.C.E. Dealt with moral behavior and social relationships Advised men to treat women with honor and respect Subjected women to the control and guidance of men Women's duties: to bear children and maintain the household Sati, social custom in which widow throws self on funeral pyre 19. Religion in the Vedic Age Aryan religion Aryan gods War god, Indra Gods of the sun, the sky, the moon, fire, health, disease God Varuna: ethical concern, cosmic order Ritual sacrifices were more important than ethics Priests were specialists of the ritual sacrifices Ritual sacrifices for rewards from the divine power Sacrifices, chants, soma Spirituality underwent a shift after about 800 B.C.E. Thoughtful individuals retreated to forests as hermits Dravidian notions of transmigration and reincarnation were adapted 20. The blending of Aryan and Dravidian values The Upanishads, works of religious teachings (800-400 B.C.E.) The religious forums: dialogues between disciples and sages Brahman: the universal soul Highest goal: to escape reincarnation and join with Brahman Samsara: an individual soul was born many times Karma: specific incarnations that a soul experienced Moksha : permanent liberation from physical incarnation Religion and Vedic society Samsara and karma reinforced caste and social hierarchy Upanishads were also spiritual and intellectual contemplations Taught to observe high ethical standards: discourage greed, envy, vice Respect for all living things, a vegetarian diet 21. Early China Early agricultural society and the Xia dynasty The Yellow River Water source at high plateau of Tibet Loess soil carried by the river's water, hence "yellow" "China'sSorrow"--extensive flooding Loess provided rich soil, soft and easy to work Neolithic societies after 5000 B.C.E. Yangshao society, 5000-3000 B.C.E. Excavations at Banpo village: fine pottery, bone tools The Xia dynasty Archeological discovery of the Xia is still in its early stages Established about 2200 B.C.E. Legendary King
  25. Yu, the dynasty founder, a hero of flood control Erlitou: possibly the capital city of the Xia 22. The Shang and Zhou Dynasties The Shang dynasty: 1766-1122 B.C.E. Arose in the southern and eastern areas of the Xia realm Many written records and material remains discovered Bronze metallurgy, monopolized by ruling elite Horses and chariots traveled with Indo- European migrants to China Agricultural surpluses supported large troops A vast network of walled towns The Shang capital moved six times Lavish tombs of Shang kings with thousands of objects Other states besides Shang, for example, Sanxingdui The Zhou dynasty: 1122-256 B.C.E. Zhou gradually eclipsed Shang Mandate of heaven, the right to rule The Zhou needed to justify the overthrow Ruler as "the son of heaven" Mandate of heaven only given to virtuous rulers Political organization: decentralized administration Used princes and relatives to rule regions Consequence: weak central government and rise of regional powers Iron metallurgy spread through China in first millennium B.C.E. The fall of the Zhou Nomadic invasion sacked Zhou capital in 711 B.C.E. Territorial princes became more independent The Warring States (403- 221 B.C.E.) The last king of the Zhou abdicated his position in 256 B.C.E. 23. Society and family in ancient China The social order The ruling elites with their lavish consumption of bronze Hereditary aristocrats with extensive landholding Administrative and military offices Manuals of etiquette Free artisans and craftsmen mostly worked for elites Merchants and trade were important Trade networks linked China with west and south Oar-propelled boats traded with Korea and offshore islands Peasants, the majority of population Landless peasants provided labor Lived in small subterranean houses Women's work: wine making, weaving, silkworm raising Wood, bone, stone tools before iron was spread in the sixth century B.C.E. Slaves, mostly war prisoners 24. Family and patriarchy Early dynasties ruled through family and kinship groups Veneration of ancestors Belief in ancestors' presence and their continuing influence Burial of material goods with the dead Offering sacrifices at the graves Family heads presided over rites of honoring ancestors' spirits Patriarchal society evolved out of matrilineal one The rise of large states brought focus on men's contribution After the Shang, females devalued 25. Early Chinese writing and cultural development The secular cultural tradition Absence of organized religion and priestly class Believed in the impersonal heavenly power-- tian Oracle bones used by fortune-tellers Inscribed question, subjected to heat, read cracks Discovery of the "dragonbones" in 1890s Early Chinese writing, from pictograph to ideograph More than two thousand characters identified on
  26. oracle bones Modern Chinese writing is direct descendant of Shang writing Thought and literature Zhou literature--many kinds of books The Book of Change , a manual of diviners The Book of History , the history of the Zhou The Book of Rites , the rules of etiquette and rituals for aristocrats The Book of Songs, a collection of verses--most notable work Most Zhou writings have perished 26. Ancient China and the larger world Chinese cultivators and nomadic peoples of central Asia Nomadic peoples of the steppe lands--herders Exchange of products between nomads and Chinese farmers Nomads frequently invaded rich agricultural society Nomads did not imitate Chinese ways Nomads relied on grains and manufactured goods of the Chinese The southern expansion of Chinese society The Yangzi valley; dependable river; two crops of rice per year The indigenous peoples of southern China Many were assimilated into Chinese agricultural society Some were pushed to hills and mountains Some migrated to Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand The state of Chu in the central region of Yanzi Challenged the Zhou for supremacy Adopted Chinese political and social traditions and writing 27. Early societies of Mesoamerica TheOlmecs Migration to Mesoamerica Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. By 9500 B.C.E., humans reached the southernmost part of South America As hunting became difficult, agriculture began (7500 B.C.E.) Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilis; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E. No large domesticated animals, no wheeled vehicles Ceremonial centers by the end of the second millennium B.C.E. Olmecs, the "rubber people,"lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. ) Elaborate complexes built The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers Rulers' power shown in construction of huge pyramids Trade in jade and obsidian Decline of Olmecs: systematically destroyed ceremonial centers by 400 B.C.E. Influence of Olmec: maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human sacrifice, ball game 28. Heirs of the Olmecs: the Maya The Maya lived in the highlands of Guatemala Besides maize, they also cultivated cotton and cacao Tikal was the most important Maya political center, 300 to 900 C.E. Maya warfare: warriors had prestige; captives were slaves or victims ChichénItzá, power by the ninth century; loose empire in Yucatan Maya decline began in 800 C.E.; many Mayans deserted their cities 29. Maya society and religion Maya society was hierarchical Kings, priests, and hereditary nobility at the top Merchants were from the ruling class; they served also as ambassadors Professional architects and artisans were important Peasants and slaves were majority of population The Maya calendar had both solar and ritual years interwoven Maya writing
  27. was ideographic and syllabic; only four books survive Religious thought PopolVuh , a Maya creation myth, taught that gods created humans out of maize and water Gods maintained agricultural cycles in exchange for honors and sacrifices Bloodletting rituals honored gods for rains The Maya ball game: sporting, gambling, and religious significance 30. Heirs of the Olmecs: Teotihuacan The city of Teotihuacan in the highlands of Mexico Colossal pyramids of sun and moon High point between 400 and 600 C.E.; two hundred thousand inhabitants Paintings and murals reflect the importance of priests Teotihuacan society Rulers and priests dominated society Two-thirds of the city inhabitants worked in fields during daytime Artisans were famous for their obsidian tools and orange pottery Professional merchants traded extensively throughout Mesoamerica No sign of military organization or conquest Cultural traditions: ball game, calendar, writing, sacrifices Decline of Teotihuacan from about 650 C.E.; was sacked and destroyed mid-eighth century 31. Early societies of South America Early Andean society and the Chavín cult Early migration to Peru and Bolivia region By 12,000 B.C.E. hunting and gathering peoples reached South America By 8000 B.C.E. they began to experiment with agriculture Complex societies appeared in central Andean region after 1000 B.C.E. Andean societies were located in modern-day Peru and Bolivia Early agriculture in South America Main crops: beans, peanuts, sweet potatoes, cotton Fishing supplemented agricultural harvests By 1800 B.C.E. the people produced pottery, built temples and pyramids The Chavín Cult, from about 900 to 300 B.C.E. Complexity of Andean society increases during Chavín Devised techniques of producing cotton textiles and fishing nets Discovered gold, silver, and copper metallurgy Cities began to appear shortly after Chavín cult Early Andeans did not make use of writing Early Andean states: Mochica (300-700 C.E.) in northern Peru Irrigation, trade, military, no writing Artistic legacy: painting on pottery, ceramics Quizs for Civilization Knowledge Test In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent? What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? Political:What law system did Sumerians use?
  28. Economic: How did Mesopotamians earn a living? Geography:Between what 2 rivers did the Fertile Crescent appear? Social:What type of writing did they use? What did Egyptians write on? 1.What river is the basis for Egyptian civilization? 2.What “paper” did Egyptians write on? 3. What is an Egyptian ruler called? 4.What writing system did Egyptians use? 5.What other African kingdom did Egypt trade and interact with? 6. What type of economic system did Egypt have? G:What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in? P: Why do we know so little of the power structure in the Indus Valley? E: How did the Indus make a living? G:In what modern day country are the settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization? G:Why did the cities have so many walls? S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the thethe Indus Valley was sophisticated? P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle, what happened to “bad kings”? E: How did the Chinese earn a living? G: What river was the earliest Chinese civilization centered around? S: What technological advancements did the Chinese have?
  29. Cultures Perhaps the most difficult aspect of trying to understand the beliefs and practices of another culture is A.determining the meaning of what the anthropologist has observed or experienced for members of the culture. Assessing the political impact of a particular event. take field notes while being a participant-observer. learning their language. finding a direct parallel in one's own culture with that of another culture. Which present-day theoretical orientations look at culture as dynamic and unstable, where norms and values are continually being "contested" or reinforced? cultural ecology and cultural materialism neo-evolutionary C.feminism, postmodernism structuralism symbolic/interpretive An illustration of the plasticity of culture would be the development of a new type of sunscreen to avoid the adverse effects of solar radiation on the human body. True False
  30. A culture may be characterized by all except which one of the following? variability among individuals and groups within the culture basically a highly integrated, static system provides members with a system of classification for understanding the world includes norms or guidelines for behavior provides a context in which people give meanings to their lives 2. Anthropologists often choose to focus on communities or groups who are significantly different from those of the larger, dominant culture within the same society, such as Amish, Hmong, and people who share a similar occupation e.g., firefighters or age e.g., elderly. These groups are referred to as ethnic groups. the socioeconomically disadvantaged. minorities. subcultures. geographical regions. Which of the following anthropological research projects would be considered a good example of an interpretive/symbolic approach? an exploration of cricket as a commentary on British culture the ecological function of Hindu beliefs regarding not eating beef the role of 'homegardens' in household economy the social structure of middle-class Brazilian households classification of medicinal plants by Samoan elders

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