VOICE AND ACCENTS• 44 sounds in the English language.• S, sh and ch.• Z and j.• P and ph.• V and bh.• T and th.• V and w.• Long and short vowels.• Stress syllables.• Tone and modulation.
STRESS WORDS• Same words, different context. E.g. object, record etc.• Words with suffix –cious, -tion, -able, -ity, -aphy, -ic, -ical, -logy. The stress is on the preceding syllable.• Words with suffix –aph, -ize. Stress is on syllables before the preceding syllable. Eg. Photograph.• Words with suffix –ese. Stress on ese.• Words with suffix –ness. No change• Stress shift in sentences.
LET’S TAKE A BREATHER• How do u pronounce • GHOTI• Gh=F (Laugh=Lauf, Rough-Rouf etc.)• O=I (Women=Wimen)• Ti=Sh (Nation=Nashon, Dictation=Dictashon etc.)• She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore.• The sixth sick Sheiks sixth sheep is sick.• World Wide Web.
DEVELOP FLUENCY• Always learn phrases, not words• Do not study grammar rules.• Listening is the key. Use your ears, not eyes.• Learn deeply• Change the point of view of a story or text.• Read/listen real English material.
VERBAL COMMUNICATION EXSBack-To-Back DrawingSplit the group into pairs and seat partners back-to-back. Give one person in the pair a drawing of ashape, and give the other person a clipboard with apiece of blank paper and pencil. The person with thedrawing must give a verbal description of the picturefor his partner to replicate on a piece of paper. Oncecompleted, pairs should compare the providedshape with the drawing. Discuss whether or notcommunication was effective and if the messagewas received correctly.
LISTENING• Listening is not same as hearing.• Active listening is key to effective communication. • Pay attention. • Be focused. • Be aware of both verbal and non-verbal communication. • Be emphatic, yet clearheaded. • Don’t interrupt. • Provide feedback. • Defer judgment and advice. • Respond appropriately.
BODY LANGUAGE• Communication is 7% words, 38% voice tonality and 55% body language. – Dr. Albert Mehrabian• Face• Eyes• Head• Arms• Legs• Torso
BODY LANGUAGE• Gesture: Brisk, erect walk Meaning: Confidence• Gesture: Standing with hands on hips Meaning: Readiness, aggression• Gesture: Sitting with legs crossed, foot kicking slightly Meaning: Boredom• Gesture: Sitting, legs apart Meaning: Open, relaxed• Gesture: Arms crossed on chest Meaning: Defensiveness
BODY LANGUAGE• Gesture: Locked ankles Meaning: Apprehension• Gesture: Head resting in hand, eyes downcast Meaning: Boredom• Gesture: Rubbing hands Meaning: Anticipation• Gesture: Sitting with hands clasped behind head, legs crossed Meaning: Confidence, superiority• Gesture: Open palm Meaning: Sincerity, openness, innocence
BODY LANGUAGE• Gesture: Walking with hands in pockets, shoulders hunched• Meaning: Dejection• Gesture: Hand to cheek• Meaning: Evaluation, thinking• Gesture: Touching, slightly rubbing nose• Meaning: Rejection, doubt, lying• Gesture: Rubbing the eye• Meaning: Doubt, disbelief• Gesture: Hands clasped behind back• Meaning: Anger, frustration, apprehension
BODY LANGUAGE• Gesture: Pinching bridge of nose, eyes closed Meaning: Negative evaluation• Gesture: Tapping or drumming fingers Meaning: Impatience• Gesture: Steepling fingers Meaning: Authoritative• Gesture: Patting/fondling hair Meaning: Lack of self-confidence; insecurity• Gesture: Quickly tilted head Meaning: Interest
BODY LANGUAGE• Gesture: Stroking chin Meaning: Trying to make a decision• Gesture: Looking down, face turned away Meaning: Disbelief• Gesture: Biting nails Meaning: Insecurity, nervousness• Gesture: Pulling or tugging at ear Meaning: Indecision• Gesture: Prolonged tilted head Meaning: Boredom
SUMMARY (YES, THAT’S RIGHT. IT’S ABOUT TO END)• Understand the basics • Know what you want to communicate • Have the courage to express • Practice• Engage the audience • Eye contact • Use gestures • Avoid mixed messages • Be aware of your body • Constructive attitudes and beliefs • Good listening skills
SUMMARY (CONTD.) (LAST SLIDE, PROMISE!!!)• Use you words • Enunciate you words • Pronounce correctly • Articulate • Modulate your rate of speech• Use you voice • Modulate your voice • Animate • Appropriate volume