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Plant introduction

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It is all about how to introduce a crop from one location to another,to other country,rules,procedures,benefits & limitations etc.

It is all about how to introduce a crop from one location to another,to other country,rules,procedures,benefits & limitations etc.

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Transcript

  • 1. Niroj kumar Jena (05 SST/12)
  • 2. DefinItion “Transference of a genotype or a group of genotype of crop plants from the place of their cultivation in to a new area where they were not being grown previously”.
  • 3. Types of Plant Introduction  Based on adaptation  Primary Introduction - Variety is well adopted to the new environment, released for commercial cultivation without any alteration in the original genotype.  Secondary Introduction - Introduced variety may be subjected to selection & hybridisation to isolate a superior variety.  Based on utilization  Direct Introduction –new variety takes no time for establishment  Indirect Introduction –new variety takes some time for establishment  Exotic variety – foreign variety directly recommended for commercial cultivation in new environment.
  • 4. Plant Introduction Agencies  World wide  IBPGR/IPGRI (1974) –  CGIAR  In India  NBPGR (1946)  FRI  BSI(1890)
  • 5. Activities of NBPGR :-  Introduce & supplement of required germplasm from & to.  Exploration & collection of valuable germplasm.  Inspection & quarantine.  Testing, multiplication & maintenance of germplasm.  Publishing its exchange & collection list.  Setting up natural gene sanctuaries.
  • 6. Sources of Plant Introduction  Centre of diversity  Gene bank  Gene sanctuaries  Seed companies  Farmers’ field
  • 7. Procedure of Plant Introduction  Procurement of germplasm  Quarantine  Cataloguing  Germplasm Evaluation  Multiplication & Distribution
  • 8. Procurement of germplasm  As Gift from individuals / institutuions  Purchase  collection through exploration  Propagules  Restriction on export & introduction of plant materials
  • 9. Quarantine  Keeping materials in isolation to prevent the spread of diseases.  Fumigation or other treatments (if necessary).  According to destructive insects & pests act, 1914, quarantine for different group of plant produce is carried out by different agencies.  Quarantine & fumigation centres at Sea-ports(8), Airports(7) & at entry point of land routes(7).
  • 10. Cataloguing  Accession number is given to a new introduced material  Information regarding name of species & variety, place of origin, adaptation & its various features are also recorded.  Cataloguing of germplasm collections is published by gene bank.  The introduced materials are of 3 types & given a prefix-  EC – Exotic Collection  IC – Indigenous Collection  IW –Indigenous Wild
  • 11. Purpose of Plant Introduction  Obtain an entirely new crop species (Maize, Potato, Tomato etc.)  To serve as new varieties (Sonora-64, Lerma rojo – wheat. TN 1, IR 8 - Rice)  To be utilized in crop improvement  To save the crop from disease & pest. (Coffee was introduced in South America from Africa to prevent losses from leaf rust).  To be used in scientific studies.  To be used for aesthetic value.
  • 12. Important Achievements  Crops are cultivated extensively after their introduction as new crop species.  Introductions have been directly released as variety.  Varieties selected from introduction  Introduction helps to develop varieties through hybridization.
  • 13. Merits of Plant Introduction  Entirely new crop plant is derived.  Quick & economical method of crop improvement.  Genetic base can be broadened by plant introduction.  Protection of crops from damage by introducing them in to disease free areas.  Development of superior varieties through selection & hybridization by using introductions.
  • 14. Demerits of Plant Introduction  Introduction of weeds along with introduced materials.  Introduction of diseases along with introduced materials.  Introduction of insect pest along with introduced materials.  Some plants introduced as ornamental species became noxious weeds.  Some introduced plants are threat to the ecological balance.

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