INTRODUCTION # Linux is a Unix-like computer operating system. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development; typically all underlying source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone. # The Linux kernel was first released to the public on 17 September 1991, for the Intel x86 PC architecture. The kernel was augmented with system utilities and libraries from the GNU project to create a usable operating system, which led to an alternative term, GNU/Linux.
Directory commands: mkdir - make directories pwd - print working directory rmdir - Remove an existing directory chown - change file owner and group chmod - change file access permissions cal month year - Prints a calendar for the specified month of the specified year. cat - Sends file contents to standard output. This is a way to list the contents of short files to the screen. It works well withpiping. wall - Prints a message to each user except those who've disabled message reception. Type Ctrl-D to end the message. w - Prints the current system users. free - Displays the amount of used and free system memory
FILE MANUPLATION: cat filename -> It is used to Display File Contents cp source destination -> It is used to Copy mv oldname newname -> It is used to Move (Rename) rm filename -> It is used to Remove (Delete) pico filename -> It is used to Create or Modify file
lpr : It is used for `Printing' lprm : It is used for Removing a print job lpq : It is used for Checking the print queues
Starting and Ending
Login : It is used to `Logging in' ssh : It is used to Connect to another machine logout : It is used to `Logging out'
Emacs : It is used to `Using the emacs text editor' mkdir : It is used to `Creating a directory' cd : It is used to `Changing your current working directory' ls : It is used to `Finding out what files you have' cp : It is used to `Making a copy of a file' mv : It is used to `Changing the name of a file' rm : It is used to `Getting rid of unwanted files' chmod : It is used to `Controlling access to your files' cmp : It is used to Comparing two files wc : It is used to Word, line, and character count compress : It is used to Compress a file
e-mail :It is used for `Sending and receiving electronic mail' talk : It is used for Talk to another user Starting and Ending
Login : It is used for `Logging in' ssh : It is used for Connect to another machine logout :It is used for `Logging out'
man : It is used for Manual pages quota -v : It is used for Finding out your available disk space quota ical : It is used for `Using the Ical personal organizer' finger : It is used for Getting information about a user passwd : It is used for Changing your password who : It is used for Finding out who's logged on
kill :It is used for `Killing a process' nohup : It is used for Continuing a job after logout nice : It is used for Changing the priority of a job & : It is used for `What is a background process?' Cntrl-z : It is used for Suspending a process fg : It is used for `Resuming a suspended process'
Next: It is used for Selecting a Unix shell See also: It is used for Learning the basic Unix tools Previous: It is used for Unix fundamentals Site map Index: It is used for Keyword index to help pages write : It is used for Write messages to another user sftp : It is used for Secure file transfer protocol
. user who:Seeing Who is Logged In whoami:seeing your user name . Searching with grep grep Command : grep "pattern" filenamecommand | grep "pattern" Search Patterns beginning of line ^ end of line $ any single character . single character in list or range [...] character not in list or range [^...] zero or more of preceding char. or pattern * zero or more of any character .* escapes special meaning
.Automating Tasks pico Makefile : Create a Makefile make -n [target] :Test Makefile make [target] : Run make . Managing Disk Usage quota -v : Check Quota Df : Seeing Disk Usage du -s . Combining and Compressing Files tar cf file.tar file1 file2 ... fileN:Create a tarfile zip filename :Create a zipfile