Technology transfer of Good Agricultural Practices(GAP) for Profitability, Sustainability and Incomefrom Rainfed farming in Rangareddy district .(2011-2014)(Funded by SEED- Department of Science and Technology)G. NirmalaSr.Scientist(AE)
What is GAP ?Good agricultural practices are set of principles appliedthrough the food production cycle to produce,safe healthyfood taking into consideration economic, social andenvironmental sustainability.Soil Management 1.Avoid mechanical soil tillage to the extentpossible.2. Maintain soil organic matter through the use ofsoil building crop rotations.3.Follow soil test based fertilizer application.4.Maintain soil cover to minimize erosion by windand water to avoid contamination withagrochemicals, organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Crop production andprotection1.Select cultivars or varieties on an understanding of theircharacteristics, its responses to sowing/planting time, qualitymarket acceptability.2.Devise suitable crop sequences3.Recycling of crop and other organic residues.4.Use of resistant cultivars.5.Practice of IPM techniques6.Keep record of agrochemical use.7.Assure equipment handling and application of agrochemicalscomplies with established safety and maintenance recordsAnimal healthmanagement1.To provide adequate clean water.2.To keep livestock, buildings and feed facilities clean andprovide adequate, clean bedding under housed conditions.3.Ensure timely vaccination schedule to prevent fromdiseases.4.Record keeping of all sickness, medical treatments andmortalityOn farm processingand storage1.Store food products under hygiene and appropriateenvironmental conditions. 2 .Pack food produce fortransport in clean and appropriate containers. 3. Maintainaccurate records regarding harvest, storage and processing.
Objectives To integrate good agricultural practices into the farming systems inrainfed agriculture by the women farmers.To improve knowledge and skill in GAP through farmers field schoolsapproachTo improve the income and micro enterprising skills through marketingand value addition of produce following food safety practices.
Selection of AreaRangareddy district-- Pudur mandal -- Kandlapally, Gangupally villages.Beneficiaries - Women (SC) –practicing agriculture as main occupationPudurmandal
Activities undertaken in crop and livestock componentsA. Baseline survey on socio economic status, practices with PRA.B. Soil sampling and analysis.C. Pre-season refresher training .D. On farm demonstrations.(Kharif season, Rabi season)E. Animal health camps.
Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats• Availability ofpoultry manure ishigh.• FYM pits in 50percent of houses.•NREGA structures-bunds,trenchesfound in every field.•Tank silt applicationprogrammeimplemented.• High motivationand participation ofwomen• Subsidy driven.•Poultry manureapplication to cottonthan food crops.•Maize is seen asfeed and fodder cropthan food crop.•Avoidance ofmanagementintensive works.•Exchange labourarrangement found.•Access to markets-Vikarabad,Hyderabad.•Access todevelopment depts.•Scope for valueaddition of maize•More acreage undercash crops than foodcrops.• More externalinput s toagriculture.SWOT analysis for GAP Interventions
Table-1 Distribution of women beneficiaries according to criteria.Land possession Education AgeCategory Percent Category Percent category PercentMarginal 63.33 Cannot readand write80 < 14 0Smallfarmer30 primary 16.66 14-40 46.66Medium 6.66 High school 3.33 >40 53.33Largefarmer-
0102030405060708090Av.N(Kg/ha)Av.P(Kg/Ha)Av. K(kg/ha)Organic C ZincLOW (%) MEDIUM(%) HIGH (%)percentageDistribution of respondents according to soil nutrient status
Yield Increase in Maize and pigeon pea intercropping systemsInterventionsYieldinq/acre(maize)PercentIncreaseMean 100grainwt.gmPlot I(FYM-PSB)29 7.67 25.84Plot II(FYM+DAP+Znso4)35 25.00 23.22Farmerspractice 3023.0
05101520251 2 3 4 5 6 7Treated (PSB) Untreated (without PSB)Microbialcountin(inlakhs)Fig-1 Microbial count of PSB in treated and untreatedplotsCourtesy: Dr. Meenakshi grover
Livestock InterventionsKandlapally village – 60 percent households-Buffaloes, Cows, Bullocks12 goatsA. Animal Vaccination- FMD, Haemorrhage septacemia,blue goats tongue in goats.B. Mineral mixture supplementation for higher milk production.C. Construction of low cost housing for animals.D. Vermicomposting unit.E. Clean Milk production practices
Animal housing for keeping good animal health (GAP)Cost of housing- Rs 500No of units- 5
Tomato – Nursery management and trellis formation
S.No. Particulars GAP(Trellis)FPRs. Rs.1 Gross Income 15000.00 9800.002 COC 7770.00 4865.003. Net Income 7230.00 5935.004. C:B ratio 1.04 0.89Profitability from Trellis cultivation intomatoObservations : Hard work, ManagementIntensive
Zero Tillage maize in rice fallows• Saving of Rs 6000 onland preparation .• New crop sequence invillage - Rice- maizebesides Rice – sorghum, rice- rice cropsequences.• Good response fromfarmers.• More fodder availablefor sale and own.•Av. Yield- 30 q/acre•B:C ratio : 2.00
Organized field day on Zero tillage maizeFarmers from Kandalpally, Yenkepally, Gangupally Mirzapurparticipated.Good response to zero tillage maize from all villages.
Pre-season refresher training programmeVermicompostingNursery management
Objective-2To improve knowledge and skill in GAP through farmers field schools approachEducational programme on Crop production and protection –soil mangement,tillagepractices, seed treatment,weed management , harvesting andthreshing activities.Clean milk production practices – Avoidance of contamination, useof clean vessels,cleaning animals before milking etc.,
Objective – 3 : improving microenterprises skills through value additionand marketing .• Grain saved is grain produced.•20-30 percent of food wasted as losses in threshing ,transportand storage.•Food security bill is more concerned with prevention of wastage.
Learnings• Management of GAP practices are labour and mangementintensive .• Planning and Pooling of raw material essential forsustainablity of such programmes.•Group approach necessary for pooling of resources.