001 retailing – an overview

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  • 1. Retailing – An Overview
  • 2. Objectives of the ChapterRetailing : Definition and ScopeRetailers Role in Distribution ChannelsBenefits of RetailingEvolution of RetailingRetailing Environment Retail Management 2
  • 3. Introduction One of the largest industries in India One of the biggest sources of Employment Present value of retail market is $ 180 million. Only 2% in organized sector. Should employ 250,000 people directly and 2.5 million people indirectly Retail Management 3
  • 4. Retailing: Definition Retailing is derived from the French word retailier, which means, "to cut a piece off.” A set of business activities that adds value to the products and services sold to the final consumers for their personal, family or household use. From a marketers point of view, retailing can be defined as a set of marketing activities designed to provide satisfaction to the end consumer and profitably maintain the customer base by continuous quality improvements across all areas concerned with selling goods and services. A retailer is any business establishment that directs its marketing efforts towards the end users for the purpose of selling goods and services. Retailers comprise street vendors, local kirana stores, supermarkets, food joints, saloons, airlines, automobile showrooms, video kiosks, direct marketers, vending machine operators, etc. Retail Management 4
  • 5. Retailing: ScopeRetailing involves: Understanding the needs of consumers Developing good assortment of merchandise Displaying the merchandise in an effective manner so that consumers find it easy and attractive to buy. Retail Management 5
  • 6. Retailer role in Channel of DistributionAn organization qualifies to be a retailer only when it derives amajor chunk of its revenues from its transactions with end users.Thus, a seller is said to have conducted a retail transaction whenhe sells goods to the end customer while a wholesale transactionis conducted when the seller sells goods to a business concern. Retail Management 6
  • 7. Benefits of RetailingRetailers deliver many benefits tocustomers, manufacturers, wholesalers, and theeconomy in the process of transfer of goodsand services from the manufacturer to the endconsumer.  Benefits to Customers  Benefit to Manufacturers and Wholesalers  Benefits to the economy Retail Management 7
  • 8. Benefits of Retailing to CustomersRetailers act as buying agents for consumers. They perform various activities that increase the value of goods and services they sell to the end consumer. The various activities are:  Breaking Bulk  Providing Assortment  Holding Inventory  Providing after sales service  Providing Information Retail Management 8
  • 9. Activities of Retailer benefitingConsumer – Breaking Bulk Retailers buy goods in bulk from manufactures and divide them into smaller sellable units according to consumption patterns of the end consumer. Benefits: 1. Quantity discounts from manufactures 2. Lower freight rates for large shipment of goods. 3. Availability of products in smaller units enables customers to buy products in quantities, which suit their consumption patterns. Retail Management 9
  • 10. Activities of Retailer benefitingConsumer – Providing Assortment Retailers evaluate the products of various manufactures and offer the best collection of products from which the customer can select the product of his/her choice. Retailers select the product assortment depending on the tastes and needs of their target customers. The variety in assortment offered makes the buying process easier for customers. Retail Management 10
  • 11. Activities of Retailer benefitingConsumer – Holding Inventory Make the products available to consumers at a convenient place and time through inventory held. Makes it possible for consumers to make instant purchases. Reduces the cost of storage and enables the consumer to invest his money profitably. Spontaneous shopping by customer is possible only because retailers stock the goods. Retail Management 11
  • 12. Activities of Retailer benefitingConsumer – Providing ServicesValued added services provided by Retailersare:  free home delivery,  accepting credit cards,  accepting payments on installment basis,  arranging loans, etc.These services make it easier for customers tobuy and use products. Retail Management 12
  • 13. Activities of Retailer benefitingConsumer – Providing Information Retailers play a major role in providing product related information to their consumers. Retailers use advertising and in-store salespersons to provide product information, which helps the consumer to simplify his purchasing process. Retail Management 13
  • 14. Benefits of Retailing to Manufacturersand Wholesalers Manufacturers and wholesalers consider retailing as a channel for delivering their products/services to the end customer. Retailers provide the manufacturer with greater revenues, which could be reinvested in production. Retailers play a major role in smoothing out the variation between the production and sales of the manufacturers products. Retailers function as the sensory organs of manufacturers. They provide feedback and information on tastes and preferences of customers for designing new products or upgrading an existing product. Retail Management 14
  • 15. Benefits of Retailing to Manufacturersand Wholesalers (Cont…) Retailers also share some of the risks of the manufacturer. A retailer is exposed to three types of obsolescence risks: Physical obsolescence  Technological obsolescence  Fashion obsolescence Physical obsolescence risk arises from the damage or wear out caused to the products while they are stored in the retail outlet. Eg: handicrafts, books, greeting cards, gift items etc. Technical Obsolescence risk: Risk of technology getting outdated resulting in severe losses for the retailer.. Eg: Computers, Mobile phones, etc. Fashion obsolescence risk is very common for apparel retailers who deal in merchandise of varying style, design or color. Retail Management 15
  • 16. Benefits of Retailing to the economy Employment generated Contribution to the management of the economy Contribution to the production cycle of the industries Ensures the success of the economic enterprises. Retail Management 16
  • 17. Evolution of Retailing Early Eighties  Retailing in India was synonymous with peddlers, vegetable vendors, neighborhood kirana stores (small grocery stores) or sole clothing and consumer durable stores in a nearby town.  These retailers operated in a highly unstructured and fragmented market. Very few retailers operated in more than one city. Before 1990  Organized retailing in India was led by few manufacturer owned retail outlets, mainly from the textile industry.,Ex: Bombay Dyeing, Raymonds, S Kumars, and Grasim. Retail Management 17
  • 18. Evolution of Retailing Nineties:  Liberalization of the Indian economy led to the dilution of stringent restrictions.  Entry of few multi-national players like Nanz into the Indian market.  Changing profile of the Indian consumers,  Increasing wages of the employees working in Greenfield sectors with higher purchasing power.  Setting up of retail chains by domestic retailers like Cotton World (Mumbai), Nirulas (Delhi) and the Viveks and Nilgiris in the South. Retail Management 18
  • 19. Factors behind the change of IndianRetailing Industry Economic growth Urbanization Consumerism Brand Profusion Availability of Real Estate Retail Management 19
  • 20. Retailing Environment Constituents of External Environment  Economic Environment  Legal Environment  Technological Environment  Competitive Environment Retail Management 20
  • 21. Economic Environment Nature of the economic system (capitalism, socialism) Gross domestic product, Rate of inflation, Purchasing power, Interest rates, Tax levels, Employment growth and others Retail Management 21
  • 22. Legal Environment Governments use various laws and regulations to ensure that retailers do not indulge in unfair trade practices  Foreign direct investment (FDI) restrictions  Lack of industry status  Property regulations  Real estate  Labor Laws  Complex taxation System Retail Management 22
  • 23. Advantages of permitting FDI inRetailOpening up of FDI in the retail sector would: bring in valuable foreign exchange bring about organization of the sector provide employment to thousands of Indians provide a wider choice of products at reduced prices to the customer improve the shopping experience. Retail Management 23
  • 24. Technological Environment Technology is one of the most important drivers of change in the retail industry. The computerization of various retail store operations have bought a sea change in the way retailing is conducted in India. Technology being used to improve the shopping environment and to provide a pleasant shopping experience to the customer. Retail Management 24
  • 25. Competitive Environment Severe competition among the existing players Attractive factors for entry into business. Stiff Competition from Unorganized sector. The competition among retailers varies depending on the way the retail operations are carried out and which entity of the distribution channel carries out these retail operations. Retail Management 25
  • 26. Summary of the Chapter Retailing : Definition and Scope Retailers Role in Distribution Channels Benefits of Retailing Evolution of Retailing Retailing Environment Retail Management 26