Public speaking


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Public speaking

  1. 1. Public Speaking Presented by: Nirbhai Singh Assignment No. 1/5 Roll No.: 1342, PGD HRM (2013-14), BK School of Business Management, Gujarat University, A’bd
  2. 2. Meaning Public Speaking (PS) is the process & act of speaking to a group of people in a structured & deliberate manner. The process is intended to inform, influence or entertain a listening audience. It is commonly understood as face-to-face speaking between individuals & audience for the purpose of communication. It is closely allied to ‘presenting’; although presenting is more often associated with commercial activity. It is a form of mass communication Public Speaking 2
  3. 3. Basic Elements In PS, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements: › Who › What › Whom › Medium › Effects This is often expressed as: “Who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects? Public Speaking 3
  4. 4. PS: A powerful tool PS is a powerful tool to use for the purposes such as: Transmitting information Motivating people to act Influencing/Persuasion Translation Ethos: Culture, philosophy Story telling Public Speaking 4
  5. 5. History  Early training in PS took place in Egypt.  PS as art was first developed by ancient Greeks some 2k years ago, known from the works of classical antiquity.  Greek orators spoke on their own behalf rather as representatives of either a client or constituency; & so any citizen who wished to succeed in court, politics or in social life had to learn techniques of PS.  These skills were first taught by a group of self styled ‘Sophists’ who used to charge fees to make the weaker arguments stronger & to make their students better.  Plato, Aristotle & Socrates: Developed PS theories in opposition to ‘Sophists’  Roman orators copied & modified the Greek PS & included in it grammar, philosophy, emotions, wit & humour. This Latin style of oration was heavily influenced by Cicero, and was the primary form of PS till WW II.  As societies & cultures changed; and with the rise of scientific methods style of speaking & writing has transformed in to the present form, but the basic principles yet remained surprisingly uniform. Public Speaking 5
  6. 6. Types of PS  Motivational: for leadership/personal development. E.g. Napoleon Hill, Shiv Khera, Dale Carnegie  Religious  Social: Speaking for a social cause disseminating awareness  Political: Promoting their party & its policies for gaining power.  Professional: Speakers who are paid fees/commission to speak publicly promoting business, commercial events, customer service, etc. E.g. Ex-politicians, Economists, Sports-stars, other public figures. Public Speaking 6
  7. 7. Types .... co nt ’d  Rhetorical criticism: criticizing others for self- praise/self-importance  Informative Speaking  Persuasive Speaking  After/before Dinner speech  Impromptu Speaking: Unprepared, unrehearsed unplanned; and Extemporaneous (prepared) Speaking  Interpretation speaking: Explaining Poetry, Prose, Dramatic interpretation, Literature, Events  Rabble-rousing speech: Provoking/inciting, stirring up emotions of public, inflammatory speech  Propaganda: Misinformation, half truths, cant Public Speaking 7
  8. 8. Characteristics Good orators are able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Changing emotions can alter decision making of an individual. Language and rhetoric use are among two of the most important aspect of PS & interpersonal communication. Having knowledge and understanding of the use & purpose of communication can help to make a more effective speaker communicate their message in an effectual way. Public Speaking 8
  9. 9. Characteristics .... co nt ’d  A more knowledgeable person cannot express his views clearly if he is not a good speaker. While an articulate speaker can move the crowd with whatever little knowledge he has.  Public speaking and oration are sometimes considered some of the most importantly valued skills that an individual can possess. This skill can be used for almost anything.  Most great speakers have a natural ability to display the skills and effectiveness that can help to engage and move an audience for whatever purpose.  Politician today can make or break their careers on the basis of a successful or unsuccessful speech. Public Speaking 9
  10. 10. Characteristics .... c o nt ’d The use of public speaking in the form of oral presentations is common in educational institutions and is increasingly recognised as a means of assessment. PS is a form of mass communication, large group communication. PS is an essential aspect for training, education, information, awareness, for all businesses, institutes, organizations (governmental & others) PS is art, craft as well as science of speaking to the masses. Public Speaking 10
  11. 11. Training & Education Most public speakers have inborn quality of oration, but in others it can be inculcated by professionals/institutes by assigning exercises to their member’s speaking skills. Members learn by observation and practice, and hone their skills by listening to constructive suggestions followed by new public speaking exercises. These include: Public Speaking 11
  12. 12. Training & Education nt ’d  Oratory  Use of gestures  Inflection: control of voice/tone,  Vocabulary, word choice,  Speaking notes, pitches of voice  Use of humour  Developing relationship with audience  Show of hands method: primarily used for billboard presentations Public Speaking 12
  13. 13. Training & Education nt ’d  Resources & education are designed to advance the skills, integrity, and values of its members and the speaking profession  Improving communication, art of public speaking, listening & thinking, leadership skills  Professional public speakers also often engage in ongoing training & education to refine their craft.  They seek guidance to improve their speaking skills, learning better storytelling techniques, how to effectively use humour as a communication tool or continue research in their topic area of focus. Public Speaking 13
  14. 14. Related terms of PS Orator: Speaker, Conversationalist Eloquent: Expressive/articulate/fluent/lucid Discourse: Symposium, conference, seminar Rhetoric: Composition & delivery of speech Crowd manipulation/exploitation Debate: discussion, treatise Speech writer Thematic interpretation: Analysing subject, matter, topic, idea Glossophobia: The common fear of public speaking; or informally, stage fright. Public Speaking 14
  15. 15. Notable Public Speakers These leaders, all used effective oratory to have a significant impact on society  Abraham Lincoln  Martin Luther King Jr.  Winston Churchill  Sukrano  MK Gandhi (his message of non-violent resistant inspired ML King Jr.) The following leaders advanced their careers in large part due to their skills in oratory  Adolf Hitler  J F Kennedy  Bill Clinton  Barak Obama Public Speaking 15
  16. 16. Tools/Medium PA System: Loud speaker, Microphone TV, Radio Internet Video conferencing: It allows geographically disparate parties to talk, hear & see each other on screen through satellite or telephone. Holographic transmission: A 3D image of the speaker is transmitted to the desired place for the audience to see & hear him/her. It may be live or recorded telecast. Public Speaking 16
  17. 17. Negative Aspects of PS Propaganda & Rabble-rousing speech : Provoke & incite people with half-truths, misinformation, cants (false piety) leading to:  Protest movements  Movements gathering mass & momentum  Leading to social unrest, economic slump, political instability  Internal disturbances (riots, Genocide, mayhem, disorder, etc.)  Unleashing vendetta & settling scores  External aggression & war mongering Joseph Goebbels, Nazi propaganda minister of Hitler: “If u tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it. It thus becomes vitally important for the state to use all its powers to repress dissent, for the truth is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is the greatest enemy of the state”. Thank You Public Speaking 17