Presented by: Nirbhai Singh
Assignment No. 1/5
Roll No.: 1342, PGD HRM (2013-14),
BK School of Business Management, Gujarat University, A’bd
Public Speaking (PS) is the process & act of
speaking to a group of people in a structured &
The process is intended to inform, influence or
entertain a listening audience.
It is commonly understood as face-to-face
speaking between individuals & audience for
the purpose of communication.
It is closely allied to ‘presenting’; although
presenting is more often associated with
It is a form of mass communication
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In PS, as in any form of communication, there
are five basic elements:
This is often expressed as:
“Who is saying what to whom using what
medium with what effects?
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PS: A powerful tool
PS is a powerful tool to use for the purposes
Motivating people to act
Ethos: Culture, philosophy
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Early training in PS took place in Egypt.
PS as art was first developed by ancient Greeks some 2k years ago,
known from the works of classical antiquity.
Greek orators spoke on their own behalf rather as representatives of
either a client or constituency; & so any citizen who wished to succeed
in court, politics or in social life had to learn techniques of PS.
These skills were first taught by a group of self styled ‘Sophists’ who
used to charge fees to make the weaker arguments stronger & to make
their students better.
Plato, Aristotle & Socrates: Developed PS theories in opposition to
Roman orators copied & modified the Greek PS & included in it
grammar, philosophy, emotions, wit & humour. This Latin style of
oration was heavily influenced by Cicero, and was the primary form of
PS till WW II.
As societies & cultures changed; and with the rise of scientific methods
style of speaking & writing has transformed in to the present form, but
the basic principles yet remained surprisingly uniform.
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Types of PS
Motivational: for leadership/personal development.
E.g. Napoleon Hill, Shiv Khera, Dale Carnegie
Social: Speaking for a social cause disseminating
Political: Promoting their party & its policies for
Professional: Speakers who are paid
fees/commission to speak publicly promoting
business, commercial events, customer service, etc.
E.g. Ex-politicians, Economists, Sports-stars, other
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Types .... co nt ’d
Rhetorical criticism: criticizing others for self-
After/before Dinner speech
Impromptu Speaking: Unprepared, unrehearsed
unplanned; and Extemporaneous (prepared)
Interpretation speaking: Explaining Poetry, Prose,
Dramatic interpretation, Literature, Events
Rabble-rousing speech: Provoking/inciting, stirring
up emotions of public, inflammatory speech
Propaganda: Misinformation, half truths, cant
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Good orators are able to change the emotions
of their listeners, not just inform them.
Changing emotions can alter decision making of
Language and rhetoric use are among two of
the most important aspect of PS &
Having knowledge and understanding of the
use & purpose of communication can help to
make a more effective speaker communicate
their message in an effectual way.
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Characteristics .... co nt ’d
A more knowledgeable person cannot express his
views clearly if he is not a good speaker. While an
articulate speaker can move the crowd with
whatever little knowledge he has.
Public speaking and oration are sometimes
considered some of the most importantly valued
skills that an individual can possess. This skill can be
used for almost anything.
Most great speakers have a natural ability to display
the skills and effectiveness that can help to engage
and move an audience for whatever purpose.
Politician today can make or break their careers on
the basis of a successful or unsuccessful speech.
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Characteristics .... c o nt ’d
The use of public speaking in the form of oral
presentations is common in educational
institutions and is increasingly recognised as a
means of assessment.
PS is a form of mass communication, large
PS is an essential aspect for training, education,
information, awareness, for all businesses,
institutes, organizations (governmental &
PS is art, craft as well as science of speaking to
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Training & Education
Most public speakers have inborn quality of
oration, but in others it can be inculcated by
professionals/institutes by assigning
exercises to their member’s speaking skills.
Members learn by observation and practice,
and hone their skills by listening to
constructive suggestions followed by new
public speaking exercises.
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Training & Education ....co nt ’d
Use of gestures
Inflection: control of voice/tone,
Vocabulary, word choice,
Speaking notes, pitches of voice
Use of humour
Developing relationship with audience
Show of hands method: primarily used for billboard
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Training & Education ....co nt ’d
Resources & education are designed to advance the
skills, integrity, and values of its members and the
Improving communication, art of public speaking,
listening & thinking, leadership skills
Professional public speakers also often engage in
ongoing training & education to refine their craft.
They seek guidance to improve their speaking skills,
learning better storytelling techniques, how to
effectively use humour as a communication tool or
continue research in their topic area of focus.
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Related terms of PS
Orator: Speaker, Conversationalist
Discourse: Symposium, conference, seminar
Rhetoric: Composition & delivery of speech
Debate: discussion, treatise
Thematic interpretation: Analysing subject,
matter, topic, idea
Glossophobia: The common fear of public
speaking; or informally, stage fright.
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Notable Public Speakers
These leaders, all used effective oratory to have a significant impact on
Martin Luther King Jr.
MK Gandhi (his message of non-violent resistant inspired ML King Jr.)
The following leaders advanced their careers in large part due to their
skills in oratory
J F Kennedy
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Loud speaker, Microphone
Video conferencing: It allows geographically
disparate parties to talk, hear & see each other
on screen through satellite or telephone.
Holographic transmission: A 3D image of the
speaker is transmitted to the desired place for
the audience to see & hear him/her. It may be
live or recorded telecast.
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Negative Aspects of PS
Propaganda & Rabble-rousing speech : Provoke & incite people
with half-truths, misinformation, cants (false piety) leading to:
Movements gathering mass & momentum
Leading to social unrest, economic slump, political instability
Internal disturbances (riots, Genocide, mayhem, disorder, etc.)
Unleashing vendetta & settling scores
External aggression & war mongering
Joseph Goebbels, Nazi propaganda minister of Hitler:
“If u tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will
eventually come to believe it. It thus becomes vitally important
for the state to use all its powers to repress dissent, for the truth
is the mortal enemy of the lie, and thus by extension, the truth is
the greatest enemy of the state”.
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