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Electrical safety sample

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  • I. Speaker’s Notes: Electricity will travel through a person because most often that person offers less resistance than the electrical user (i.e., machinery, power tool) that is currently on the circuit. If the person is touching the ground, that person will form a completed electrical circuit. Now the electricity will prefer to travel through the person (less resistance) and to the ground. How can birds safely sit on high-voltage electrical wires? Because they are not touching the ground, they do not form a completed circuit, so the electricity does not pass through them.
  • I. Speaker’s Notes: Almost all electrical equipment is designed with some sort of grounding system so that if there is a problem such as a short circuit, the electrical current will go to ground through the grounding system rather than through the human body. Do not use equipment with damaged grounding connectors. Some people might alter a 3-prong plug by cutting off the grounding prong so that they can plug into a 2-prong receptacle. This practice is not safe because you are bypassing an equipment safeguard and setting yourself up for an injury. Another option is to use an adapter that converts a 3-prong system into a 2-prong system. Again, this interrupts the grounding connection. The adapters are not designed to send the current to ground if there is a problem.
  • I. Background for the Trainer:: If your company uses Ground Fault Circuit Interuptors (GFCIs), bring one in to demonstrate to the employees. II. Speaker’s Notes: GFCIs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks by automatically switching off the power when a small amount of earth or grounded current is detected. GFCI receptacles might be found in homes or hotels in the bathroom or kitchen where an electric appliance such as a hair dryer or toaster has a chance to fall into a sink full of water. If this occurred, the GFCI would automatically shut off the power to the receptacle. The receptacle would have to be manually reset. GFCIs can also be portable and used with extension cords and power tools. Fuses and circuit breakers operate at several Amps to allow the circuit to continue even when slightly overloaded. Remember, people are injured at the milliAmp level.
  • I. Speaker’s Notes: Static electricity is very common in the workplace and at home. It is caused when two materials rub against each another and build up a charge of electricity. The static is finally dissipated when a grounded conductor, such as a doorknob, is touched. Sometimes static electricity can result in arcs of electricity leaping from a person onto an operator’s metal console. This type of static electricity can cause minor skin burns. It can cause dangerous shocks for people with heart conditions. Static electricity can be reduced by properly grounding the equipment, providing rubber matting (i.e., increased resistance) for the operator to stand on, or providing PPE such as grounding wires that connect to a worker’s wrist, gloves, or shoes.
  • I. Speaker’s Notes: Never tamper with or bypass electrical interlocks or other machine safeguards. You are risking injury to yourself and others every time you do this. Do not attempt to repair electrical components of your machine. Do not even open your machine’s electrical panel. Remember, only authorized workers are permitted to repair or work on electrical equipment. Properly disengage or shut off your machine before working in its point of operation. This may mean hitting the emergency stop or even calling an authorized worker to lock out the machine first. Obey warning signs and stickers, particularly those that warn of high voltage. Learn to identify electrical malfunctions of your machine.
  • I. Speaker’s Notes: This slide lists the main points to remember when working with electricity.

Electrical safety  sample Electrical safety sample Presentation Transcript

  • -Electrical Safety -ES Global Developments P.G. Sreejith Cholamandalam MS Risk Services Ltd. www.cholarisk.com
  • In this presentation……
    • Section I
    • Electrical hazards
    • Electrical accidents – Statistics
    • Humans & Electricity
    • Electrical Safety Programme elements
    • Section II
    • Global Developments in Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Accidents-Statistics
        • 25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA)
        • 411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year (NIOSH)
        • Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 - 1990) NIOSH
        • About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB, (India)
        • 42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source -OISD)
        • 8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to electricity
  • ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS- 10 year Period, Chemical Industry
  •  
  • Electrical Near-Misses & Accidents- Major Causes
    • Working on live equipment w/o authorization or PPE
    • Wiring mistakes coupled with failure of safe-energy conditions
    • Leaving unsafe conditions
  • Electricity and People
    • A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the electricity
    • The person forms a completed circuit when touching the ground
    • Electricity always tries to travel to ground
  • ELECTRICAL FIRES ….
    • ELECTRICAL FAULTS (Contd.)
          • STATIC DISCHARGES
          • LIGHTNING
          • USING ORDINARY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN HAZARDOUS AREAS
  • Earthing
    • Most electrical equipment is designed with a earthing system
    • Earth all equipment with metallic body (TVs?)
    • Double & Single earthing- differentiation?
    • Carry out ER tests annually as per NFPA 70
    • Take action on high ER values
    • Identify all earth pits, maintain a Earth Pit lay out
  • Earth Leakage Circuit Breakers
    • ELCBs reduce the likelihood of fatal shocks
    • Detect small amount of leakage current and automatically switch off the power
    • Can be used with extension cords and portable tools
    • Fuses and circuit breakers protect equipment, not people
    • Use the right sensitivity ELCBs (30, 100, 300 mA)
  • Static Electricity
    • Created when materials rub together
    • Can cause shocks or even minor skin burns
    • Can damage sensitive electronic equipment
    • Reduced or prevented by:
      • Proper grounding
      • Anti-Static rubber matting
      • Bonding & earthing of equipment, pipelines
  • Electrical Fire Protection
    • Use Linear Heat Sensing cables in cable cellars along with smoke detectors
    • Consider all major electrical fires in EMP
    • Install master control switches outside all stores
    • Maintain PFEs for electrical rooms
    • Consider local flooding systems for critical panels/ switchgear panels
  • Case Study
    • An electrician received a shock while trying to replace a tube light ballast in live power condition.
    • He touched a live conductor. He was not wearing rubber gloves. Current entered his right hand through his little finger and exited through his left hand.
    • Post Accident Correction:
      • Working on live circuits not permitted
      • LOTO to be strictly enforced
  • Equipment Operators
    • Never tamper with electrical interlocks
    • Do not repair electrical components of your machine
    • Properly shut off machinery before operation
    • Obey warning signs and follow safe procedures
    • Follow PTW procedures strictly
  • Electrical Preventive Maintenance
    • Identification of critical Electrical Equipment
    • Emergency lighting
    • Fire Alarm System
    • Protection Supply DC System
    • UPS System, Battery Banks
    • Electrical Maintenance Procedures to be aligned with NFPA 70 B
  • Planning for EPM
    • Personal Safety
    • Equipment Failure
    • Production Economics
  • Electrical Preventive Maintenance
    • Implement EPM without slippage
    • Carry out all tests (ER, IR, transformer oil, DGA, LP system, transformer protective devices- simulation, FA system for electrical rooms, etc.)
    • Adopt NFPA 70 E / B for electrical maintenance
    • Adopt Risk Based maintenance
    • Use predictive maintenance tools (hotspot detector, Ultrasonic detectors, Thermography)
  • ‘ All electrical accidents are preceded by rise in temperature & sound ’
  • ELECTRICAL SAFETY AUDIT
    • A systematic approach to critically analyze the existing Electrical Procedures and Practices from safety point of view
  • Global Developments in Electrical Safety
  • Present Status - ES-India
    • ES Awareness is slowly growing
    • Use of RCCBs in the rise, finer details are yet to be understood by many
    • More ES workshops / seminars are conducted in India
    • Statutory regulations are enforced strictly (Karnataka, Delhi - Use of RCCBs mandatory in residential buildings)
    • Many industries are re-aligning their Electrical practices based on international standards (NFPA, IEEE, etc.)
  • Evolvement of ES Standards / organizations-United States
    • NFPA - NEC ( 1897 )
    • NESC ( 1913 ), from IEEE
    • NIOSH (Research example: development of voltage detector that will signal the person if he gets close to live power)- 1970
    • OSHA ( 1970 )
    • NFPA 70 E & B ( 1979 ) -approved by OSHA
    • Electrical Trauma Centre, Chicago ( 1990 )
    • NESF( 1994 ), by UL, NFPA, NEMA, CPSC
  • ES Products...
  • ES Auditing Techniques
    • Electrical Risk Assessment using Semi-Quantitative Risk Ranking (SQRR) technique
    • Emergency Lighting Risk Assessment
    • Benchmarking against applicable standards:
      • NFPA 780 Lightning Protection
      • NFPA 70 M Electrical Preventive Maintenance
      • NFPA 70 E Personal Safety from Electrical Safety
  • Electrical Risk Assessment (SQRR Technique) Risk Ranking based on severity, probability High Risk - Statutory Non-compliance, F&E hazards, Shock hazards, Risks that could result in immediate threat to life & property. Immediate correction Medium Risk - Maintenance flaws,Operational issues - correction at the next available opportunity . Low Risk - Mainly improvement measures, long term implementation
  • RCCB Tripping
    • How do we solve this problem in India ?
    Bypass it !!!
  • ES related Information
    • Indian Electricity Rule, 1956 (2000 rev.):
    • (MoP, CEA web site, http://powermin.nic.in)
    • Lightning Protection Risk Assessment: www.furse.com
    • National Electrical Safety Foundation : www.nesf.org
    • Free safety Power Point presentations : http://siri.org/
    • Electrical Accidents : http://www.safteng.net :
    • IEEE IAS ES WS –Delhi Dec. 2004
  • Standards & Codes
    • NFPA 70 E & B- E-Safety & Maintenance
    • NFPA 780- Lightning Protection
    • API RP 2003- Static Electricity
    • API RP 500- HAC
    • OSHA 29 CFR- part 1910- Arc Flash
    • NFPA 70- NEC
    • IEEE 1584- Arc Flash Protection
    • NFPA 77- Static Electricity
    • OSHA CFR 1926-Personnel Electrical Safety
  • Summary
    • Electricity will try to reach ground even if it means going through a person
    • Earthing has an important role in ES
    • Always inspect power tools and cords and do not use them if damaged
    • Do not attempt to repair electrical equipment unless trained and qualified
    • Understand effects of Lightning- it could save your life!
    • Major fires, explosions occurred due to ESD , lightning in flammable atmospheres