“Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world. ” The life and times ofNelson Mandela Official Website: http://www.nelsonmandela.org 1
Brief Introduction Full Name: Nelson RolihlahlaMandela Born :18 July 1918, Age : 91 Years, Place of birth:Mvezo,Dist: Umtata in the Transkei territory. Father: GadlaHenry Mphakanyiswaserved as chief of the town of Mvezo, Mother:NosekeniFanny, Siblings: 3 Brothers & 9 Sisters, His Hero of life: PaunRobenson (a musician) His Signature: 2
Mandela’s Early Life He is the First member of his family to attend a school. At Sixteen, Mandela Completed his Junior Certificate in 2yrs instead of 3yrs. At nineteen, he took an interest in boxing and running at the school. Mandela began to study for a Bachelor of Arts at the Fort Hare University. At the end of Nelson's first year, he became involved in a Students' Representative Council boycott against university policies. Mandela later started work as an articled clerk at a Johannesburg law firm.
Mandela completed his B.A. degree at the University of South Africa via
correspondence, after which he began law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. 3
Political Activity Mandela begin actively participate in politics from 1952. He led prominently in the ANC's (Afrikaner-dominated National Party) 1952 Defiance Campaign. In 1955,he led ”Congress of the People”, whose adoption of the Freedom Charter provided the fundamental basis of the anti-apartheid cause. Mandela and 150 others were arrested on 5 December 1956 and charged with treason. Mandela starts a law firm & provide free or low-cost help to many black people. 4
Anti-aparthied Activities In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC's armed wing, UmkhontoWe Sizwe (translated Spear of the Nation, and also abbreviated MK), which he co-founded. He coordinated sabotage campaigns against military and government targets. Mandela also raised funds for MK abroad and arranged for paramilitary training of the group. Later, mostly in the 1980s, MK waged a guerrilla war against the apartheid regime in which many civilians became casualties. Mandela later admitted that the ANC, in its struggle against apartheid, also violated human rights and stop these activities. 5
Arrest & Rivonia trial 6 On 5 August 1962 Mandela was arrested after living on the run for seventeen months, and was imprisoned in the Johannesburg Fort. On 25 October 1962, Mandela was sentenced to five years in prison. Police arrested prominent ANC leaders on 11 July 1963, at Liliesleaf Farm, Rivonia, north of Johannesburg. Charged by the chief prosecutor Dr. Percy Yutar with the capital crimes of sabotage (which Mandela admitted) and crimes which were equivalent to treason. The Republic of South Africa and the declaration of a state of emergency along with the banning of the ANC. Mandela went on to explain : “During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to the struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
Imprisonment Nelson Mandela was imprisoned on Robben Island where he remained for the next eighteen of his twenty-seven years in prison. While in jail, his reputation grew and he became widely known as the most significant black leader in South Africa. Prisoners were segregated by race ,to blacks they only allow one visitor and one letter every six months. In prison Mandela undertook study with the University of London by correspondence through its External Programme and received the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 7 RobbenIsland’s Prison
Imprisonment (cont.) Nominated for the position of Chancellor of the University of London in the 1981 election, but lost to Princess Anne. In March 1982 Mandela was transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison, along with other senior ANC leader. The first meeting between Mandela and the National Party government came in November 1985 when KobieCoetsee met Mandela in Volks Hospital in Cape Town where Mandela was recovering from prostate surgery. 8
Throughout Mandela's imprisonment,
local and international pressure mounted on the South African government to release him, under the resounding slogan Free Nelson Mandela!
De Klerk announced Mandela's release in
Release On 2 February 1990, State President F.W. de Klerk reversed the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid organizations, and announced that Mandela would shortly be released from prison. Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison in Paarl on 11 February 1990. On the day of his release, Mandela made a speech to the nation He declared his commitment to peace and reconciliation with the country's white minority. He also said his main focus was to bring peace to the black majority and give them the right to vote in both national and local elections. South Africa's president FW de Klerk poses with Nelson Mandela in Cape Town's government residence on February 9 1990. 9
Negotiations In 1990,Mandela elected as President of the organization. Mandela's leadership through the negotiations, as well as his relationship with President F.W. de Klerk, was recognized when they were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. The assassination of ANC leader Chris Hani in April 1993. While some riots did follow the assassination, the negotiators were comes into action, and soon agreed that democratic elections should take place on 27 April 1994, just over a year after Hani's assassination. 10
Presidency of South Africa South Africa's first multi-racial elections were held on 27 April 1994. ANC won 62% of the votes in the election, and Mandela, as leader of the ANC, was inaugurated on 10 May 1994 as the country's first black President. Mandela ordered troops into Lesotho in September 1998 to protect the government of Prime Minister PakalithaMosisili. One of Mandela's trademarks was his use of Batik shirts, known as "Madiba shirts", even on formal occasions.[ 11
Reconciliation of Black & White Mandela encouraged black South Africans to get behind the previously hated Springboks (the South African national rugby team) as South Africa hosted the 1995 Rugby World Cup. After the Springboks won an epic final over New Zealand, Mandela presented the trophy to captain Francois Pienaar, an Afrikaner. This was a major step in the reconciliation of white and black South Africans. 12
From the Gallery 13 Facing the world Nelson Mandela poses for photographers in Cape Town following his first press conference on February 12 1990, a day after his release from jail. Nelson Mandela poses with Michael Jackson before cutting a birthday cake for his 78th birthday July 19 1996.
From the Gallery 14 Nelson Mandela casts his vote at the Transvaal Automobile Club, Houghton, Johannesburg as South Africa's third democratic election get off to a smooth start on April 14 2004. United Nations secretary general Kofi Annan meets former president Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg on March 15, 2006 during his first visit to South Africa.
From the Gallery 15 Laila Ali shares a joke with Nelson Mandela at the Nelson Mandela Foundation in Johannesburg on January 30 2007. Ali was is in South Africa to defend her light heavyweight world title British Prime Minister Tony Blair and his South African counterpart Nelson Mandela chat on the grounds of the Royal and Ancient St Andrews Golf Course on October 26 1997
Marriage and Family Mandela has been married three times, has fathered six children, has twenty grandchildren. His First Marriage: Evelyn NtokoMase The couple broke up in 1957 after 13 years. Evelyn Mase died in 2004. Couple had two sons & two daughters. Two Sons: MadibaThembekile (Thembi) (1946–1969) and Makgatho Mandela (1950–2005) , and Two daughters, both named Makaziwe Mandela (known as Maki; born 1947 and 1953). 16
Marriage and Family His Second Marriage: Winnie Madikizela-Mandela. She was the city's first black social worker. The couple had two children: Two daughters, Zenani (Zeni), born 4 February 1958, and Zindziswa (Zindzi) Mandela-Hlongwane, born 1960. 17
His Third Marriage
Mandela was remarried, on his 80th birthday in 1998.
Named: GraçaMachel née Simbine, widow of SamoraMachel, the former Mozambican president.
Retirement He decided not to stand for a second term and retired in 1999. He joins & started many social and human rights organizations: Make Poverty History movement. South Africa's most successful charitable sports gathering:”The Nelson Mandela Invitational charity golf tournament” Mandela is a vocal supporter of SOS Children's Villages, the world's largest organization dedicated to raising orphaned and abandoned children. 18
Mandela’s Health In July 2001, Mandela was diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer. In June 2004, at age 85, Mandela announced that he would be retiring from public life. His health had been declining, and he wanted to enjoy more time with his family. Mandela's 90th birthday was marked across the country on 18 July 2008, with the main celebrations held at his home town of Qunu.[ In a speech to mark his birthday, Mandela called for the rich people to help poor people across the world. 19
In 2003 Mandela's death was incorrectly announced by CNN, due to a fault
in password protection.
AIDS Engagement “AIDS is no longer just a disease, it’s a Human Right issue”-Nelson Mandela One of Mandela's primary commitments has been to the fight against AIDS. He gave the closing address at the XIII International AIDS Conference in 2000, in Durban. In 2003, he had already lent his support to the 46664 AIDS fundraising campaign, named after his prison number. In July 2004, he flew to Bangkok to speak at the XV International AIDS Conference. His son, Makgatho Mandela, died of AIDS on 6 January 2005. 20
Iraq Invasion Views In 2002 and 2003, Mandela criticised the foreign policy of the administration of U.S. president George W. Bush in a number of speeches. Criticising the lack of UN involvement in the decision to begin the War in Iraq. He urged the people of the U.S. to join massive protests against Bush and called on world leaders to oppose him. He attacked the United States for its record on human rights and for dropping atomic bombs on Japan during World War II. 21
Zimbabwe & Robert Mugabe Criticised internationally for the 1980s fighting which killed about 3000 people as well as corruption, incompetent administration, political oppression(cruelty) and favoritism that has ultimately led to the economic collapse of the country. Mandela criticised Mugabe in 2000. In June 2008, at the height of the crisis over the Zimbabwean presidential election, Mandela condemned the "tragic failure of leadership" in Zimbabwe.[ 22
Robert Mugabe, the president of Zimbabwe who has led the country since
independence in 1980.
Awards & Honours The Presidential Medal of Freedom from George W. Bush in 1993. In 2001, he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen. In 1990, he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India And also received the last ever Lenin Peace Prize from Russia. 23
Mandela has received more than two hundred and fifty awards over four
decades, most notably the Nobel Peace Prize.
The Order of Merit and the Order of St. John from Queen Elizabeth II.
Musical Tributes Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. The most popular was from the The Specials who recorded the song "Free Nelson Mandela" in 1983. A summary of Mandela's life story is featured in the 2006 music video "If Everyone Cared" by Nickelback. Raffi's song "Turn This World Around" is based on a speech given by Mandela where he explained the world needs to be "turned around, for the children". A tribute concert for Mandela's 90th birthday took place in Hyde Park, London on 27 June 2008. 24
From the Gallery 25 Former US president Bill Clinton and Nelson Mandela attend the third Nelson Mandela Annual Lecture on July 19 2005 in Johannesburg. Nelson Mandela throws a rose on to the coffin of his son Makgathoon January 15 2005. Mandela said his son had died of HIV/Aids.
From the Gallery 26 Nelson Mandela receives an England team jersey with "Mandela" on the back from team captain David Beckham on May 21 2003. Nelson Mandela receives a Barcelona Football Club jersey from club manager Albert Perrin at the Mandela Foundation in Houghton on June 20 2007
From the Gallery 27 Nelson Mandela attends the launch of his new book Mandela: The Authorised Portrait in Johannesburg on October 9 2006. Nelson Mandela, wearing a New York Yankee cap and jacket, takes an unannounced rush hour stroll in northwest Washington, June 26, 1990.
Published Biography Mandela's autobiography, ”Long Walk to Freedom”, was published in 1994 by Little Brown & Co. Mandela had begun work on it secretly while in prison. In that book Mandela did not reveal anything about the alleged complicity of F.W. de Klerk in the violence of the eighties and nineties Journalist Anthony Sampson who issued ”Mandela: The Authorised Biography”. James Gregory was the author of fraudulent book, ”Goodbye Bafana”, and Mandela said he shows my life in a wrong manner. 28
Cinema & television The film Mandela and De Klerk told the story of Mandela's release from prison. Its world premiere shown at the Berlin film festival on 11 February 2007. The film, entitled Invictus,was directed by Clint Eastwood, and featured Freeman as Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon as Pienaar. In a forthcoming BBC television one-off drama Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela will be portrayed by David Harewood and Sophie Okonedo will play his former wife Winnie Mandela. 29
Statues & Civic tributes 30 On 31 March 2004, Sandton Square in Johannesburg was renamed Nelson Mandela Square On 30 April 2001, Nelson Mandela Gardens in Millenium Square, Leeds was officially opened
Statues & Civic tributes 31 On 27 August 2008, a statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled at Groot Drakenstein Correctional Centre between Paarl and Franshhoek on the R301 road, near Cape Town. On 29 August 2007, a statue of Nelson Mandela was unveiled at Parliament Square in London.
Statues & Civic tributes 32 Mandela Parkway, in Oakland, California England there is a Nelson Mandela Park with the slogan "South Africa belongs to all those who live there, Black and White". It is opposite Leicester Tigers ground Welford Road.
Postage Stamps & Coins 33
35 Thank you… Questions if any Prepared by: Nirankar Singh Roll no.: PGDFM/09/003