Nanophysics is the physics of structures and
artefacts with dimensions in the nanometer range or
of phenomena occurring in nanoseconds.
Nanophysics are the study and application of
extremely small things and can be used across all
the other science fields, such as
chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and
Nanophysics is science, engineering, and
technology conducted at the nanoscale, which is
about 1 to 100 nanometers.
It’s hard to imagine just how small nanotechnology
is. One nanometer is a billionth of a meter, or 10-9
of a meter. Here are a few illustrative examples:
A sheet of newspaper is about 100,000
There are 25,400,000 nanometers in an
On a comparative scale, if a marble were
a nanometer, then one meter would be
the size of the Earth.
Physicist Richard Feynman, the father of
Nanophysics involve the ability to see and to control
individual atoms and molecules. Everything on Earth is
made up of atoms—the food we eat, the clothes we
wear, the buildings and houses we live in, and our
But something as small as an atom is impossible to
see with the naked eye. In fact, it’s impossible to
see with the microscopes typically used in a high
school science classes. The microscopes needed to
see things at the nanoscale were invented relatively
recently—about 30 years ago.
Although modern nanoscience
and nanotechnology are quite
materials were used for centuries.
Alternate-sized gold and silver
particles created colors in the
stained glass windows of medieval
churches hundreds of years ago.
The artists back then just didn’t
know that the process they used
to create these beautiful works of
art actually led to changes in the
composition of the materials they
were working with.
Today's scientists and engineers are finding a wide
variety of ways to deliberately make materials at the
nanoscale to take advantage of their enhanced
properties such as higher strength, lighter
weight, increased control of light spectrum, and
greater chemical reactivity than their larger-scale
The first use of concepts in ‘nano-technology was in: There’s
plenty of the room at the bottom ,a talk given by Richard
Feynman. Feynman described a process by which the ability to
manipulate individual atoms and molecules might be
developed ,using one set of precise tools to build and operate
another proportionally smaller set, and so on down to the
In the course of this, he noted, scaling issues would arise
from the changing magnitude of various physical
phenomena gravity would become less important, surface
tension and van der waals attraction would become more
important,etc.this basic idea appears plausible, and
exponential assembly enhances it with parallelism to
produce a useful quantity of end products.
The term ‘nanophysics’ was defined by Tokyo
Science University Professor Norio Tanguchi in a
1974 paper as  as follows :
‘Nano-technology’ mainly consists of
separation , consolidation, and deformation of
materials by one atom or by one molecule.’
In the 1980s the basic idea of this
definition was explored in much more depth by Dr.
K. Eric Drexler , who promoted the technological
significance of nano-scale phenomena and devices
through speeches and the books Engines of
The Coming Era of Nanophysics (1986) and
Nanosystems : Molecular Machinery , Manufacturing
, and Computation ,  and so the term acquired its
current sense. Engines of creation : The Coming Era
of Nanophysics is considered the first book on the
topic of Nanophysics . Nanophysics and nanoscience
got started in the early 1980s with two major
A Fundamental concepts ,
One nanometer (nm) is one billionth , or 10-9, of a meter
. By comparison , typical carboncarbon bond lenghts , or
the spacing between these atoms in a molecule , are in
the range 0.12-0.15 nm , and a DNA double-helix has a
diameter around 2 nm. On the other land, the smallest
cellular life-forms , the bacteria of genus Mycoplasma
, are around 200 nm in length.
The project lists all of the products in a publicly
accessible online inventory.
Most applications are limited to the use of ‘first
generation’ passive nonmaterial which includes
titanium dioxide in sunscreen, cosmetics and
some food products; carbon allotropes used to
produce gecko tape; silver in food
packaging, clothing, disinfectants and household
appliances; zinc oxide in sunscreens and
cosmetics, surface coatings, paints and outdoor
furniture varnishes; and cerium oxide as a fuel
Nano-membranes have been produced that are portable and
easily-cleanaed systems that purify, detoxify and desalinate water
meaning that third-world countries could get clean water, solving
many related health issues.
2.Chemestiry and Environment
4.Information and Communication
Nano-medicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and
clinically helpful devices in the future.
The national Nano-technology initiative expects new commercial
applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced
drug delivery systems,new therapies,and in vivo imaging.
Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are
another active goal of research.
Further down the line,the speculative field of molecular Nano-technology
believes that cell repair machine could revolutionize medicine and the
Chemical catalysis and filtration are two prominent examples where
Nano-technology already plays a role.
The synthesis provides novel materials with tailored features and
chemical properties: for example,Nano-particles with a distinct
chemical surrounding,or specific optical properties.
In a sense,all chemical synthesis can be understood in terms of Nano-
technology,because of its ability to manufacture certain molecules.
Thus,chemistry forms a base for Nano-technology providing tailor-
made molecules, polymers, etcetera, as well as clusters and Nano-
The most advanced Nano-technology projects related to
Storage, Conversion, Manufacturing improvements by
reducing materials and Process rates, Energy saving, and
Enhanced renewable energy sources.
Current high-technology production processes are based on
traditional top down strategies, where Nano-technology has
already been introduced silently.
The critical length scale of integrated circuits is already at the
nanoscale (50 nm and below) regarding the gate length of
transistors in CPUs or DRAM devices.
An inevitable use of Nano-technology will be in heavy
Such as in the field of
Aerospace, Construction, Refineries, Vehicle
manufactures, and so on
Nano-technology is already impacting the field of consumer
goods, providing products with novel functions ranging from
easy-to-clean to scratch-resistant.
Modern textiles are wrinkle-resistant and stain-repellent; in
the mid-term clothes will become smart, through embedded
Already in use are different nanoparticle improved products .
Especially in the field of cosmetics, such novel products have a
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon. These cylindrical
carbon molecules have interesting properties that make them potentially
useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and
other fields of materials science, as well as potential uses in architectural
fields. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical
properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Their final
usage, however, may be limited by their potential toxicity.
• CNTs Can be found in the
carbon soot of graphite
electrodes during an arc
discharge involving high
current. This process yields
CNTs with lengths up to 50
• In the laser ablation process, a
pulsed laser vaporizes a
graphite target in a high-
temperature reactor while an
inert gas is inserted into the
reactor. Nanotubes develop on
the cooler surfaces of the
reactor as the vaporized carbon
Carbon nanotubes have the strongest tensile
strength of any material known.
It also has the highest modulus of elasticity.
If the nanotube structure is
armchair then the electrical
properties are metallic
If the nanotube structure is chiral
then the electrical properties can
be either semiconducting with a
very small band gap, otherwise the
nanotube is a moderate
In theory, metallic nanotubes can
carry an electrical current density of
4 109 A/cm2 which is more than
1,000 times greater than metals
such as copper
All nanotubes are expected to be very good thermal
conductors along the tube, but good insulators laterally
to the tube axis.
It is predicted that carbon nanotubes will be able to
transmit up to 6000 watts per meter per Kelvin at
room temperature; compare this to copper, a metal
well-known for its good thermal conductivity, which
transmits 385 watts per meter per K.
The temperature stability of carbon nanotubes is
estimated to be up to 2800oC in vacuum and about
750oC in air.
Defects can occur in the form of atomic vacancies. High
levels of such defects can lower the tensile strength by up
Because of the very small structure of CNTs, the tensile
strength of the tube is dependent on its weakest
segment in a similar manner to a chain, where the
strength of the weakest link becomes the maximum
strength of the chain.