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  • 1. Active Learning Assignment Topic: Air Pollution Prepared By: 1)Akabari Nirali 2)Bhut Vidhi 3)Bhavsar Mausam 4)Kapadiya Tinkle
  • 2. Air Pollution
  • 3. Introduction  Air constituents 80% of……….  We breath about 22,000 times…….  This suggets how that……  Also the effects of…….  We can not control the flow of………
  • 4. What is Air Pollution?  “Air Pollution is the presence in ambient atmosphere of substances, generally resulting from the activity of man in sufficient concentration, present for a sufficient time and causes the harmful effect on humans, plants and animals.”
  • 5. Sources of Air Pollution Natural Sources 1.Pollen grains 2. Forest Fires 3. Salt spray from oceans 4. Dust Storms 5. Marshy land 6. Spores 7.Photochemical reactions Man Made Sources 1.Industrial units 2.Thermal power plants 3.Automobile exhaust 4.Fossil fuel burning 5.Agricultural activities 6.Nuclear explosion 7.Domestic burning of woods
  • 6. Primary Pollutants The major primary pollutants include: Particulate Matter (PM), Sulfur dioxide, Nitrogen oxides, Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), Carbon monoxide, and Lead. Pollutants
  • 7. Natural source Man Made Sources
  • 8. Secondary Pollutants  Atmospheric sulfuric acid is one example of a secondary pollutant.  Air pollution in urban and industrial areas is often called smog.  Photochemical smog, a noxious mixture of gases and particles, is produced when strong sunlight triggers photochemical reactions in the atmosphere.  The major component of photochemical smog is ozone.  Although considerable progress has been made in controlling air pollution, the quality of the air we breathe remains a serious public health problem.
  • 9. Controlling Air Pollution through Regulations  Economic activity, population growth, meteorological conditions, and regulatory efforts to control emissions, all influence the trends in air pollution.  The Clean Air Act of 1970 mandated the setting of standards for four of the primary pollutants— particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and Nitrogen as well as the secondary pollutant ozone.
  • 10. Have Regulations Helped?  In 1997, the emissions of the five major primary pollutants in the United States were about 31 percent lower than 1970.  In 1990, Congress passed the Clean Air Act Amendments, which further tightened controls on air quality.  Regulations and standards regarding the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are periodically established and revised.
  • 11. Air is Expensive than Blood. Air is what we Breathe every Second even during sleep.  Air is sucked into lungs every few seconds and the alveolar system of the lungs helps the oxygenation of blood in every drop.  Heart pumps Blood and Blood carries O2(by Hemoglobin) to every part/cell of the body to sustain Life inside.
  • 12. Air Pollution-2 side effects of Coins1.Pollution & 2. Deforestation 1.Pollution: Pollution is the main cause for Global Warming. 2. Deforestation : Forest/Vegetation on the side have the capacity to take the carbon oxides and purify the air around by releasing oxygen, thus nullifying pollution to some extent. But the present day scenario ,pollution is increasing every second, and same time on the other site deforestation is happening aat rapid speed and is supporting the acceleration of Air
  • 13.  „More O2‟ into the body is called „More Life.‟  Similarly „Better O2‟ into the body is called „Better Life.‟  „Polluted O2‟ into the body is called „Polluted Life.‟
  • 14. Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health:  Eye irritation can be caused by many air pollutants such as NOX, O3, PAN, smog, Particulates, etc.  Nose and throat irritation can be caused by SO2, NOX, pesticides, etc.  Hydrogen fluoride can causes fluorosis and mottling of teeth.
  • 15.  Irritation of the respiratory tract can be caused by SOX, NO2, O3, CO, etc.  Dust Particles can causes dust specific respiratory diseases such as silicosis and asbestosis.  Heavy metals like lead can causes poisoning. Its high concentration can causes damage liver and kidney.
  • 16. Property/Material:  Pollutants like SO2, O3, H2S and aerosols damage protective coating and paints of the surface.  Damage of textile dyes and textile fibers is caused by SOX, NOX, and O3.  Soiling increases cost of cleaning shirts and others wears, windows, curtains, building surfaces.
  • 17. Climate: Melting of ice, glaciers. Affect agricultural output because of change in pattern in rain fall. Aesthetic Beauty: Industries, automobiles Sewage and garbage heaps emit foul odours causing further loss of aesthetic beauty.
  • 18. Composition of Air  Atmosphere is the mixture of various gases and water vapour and subatomic particles that entirely covers the earth extending outward several thousand kilometers. The major gases in a pollution free dry air are Nitrogen(78%), Oxygen(21%), Argon( 0.9-1.0%) and carbon dioxide.  The minor gases include Neon, Helium, Methane, Hydrogen, C arbon Monoxide Ozone etc.
  • 19. Constituent Concentration Nitrogen 0.7808 Oxygen 0.2095 Argon 0.0093 Carbon dioxide 355 ppm Neon 18 ppm Helium 5.2 ppm Methane 1.8 ppm
  • 20. Sr. No. Research Topic Author Methods& Materials Findings 1. Participatory Air Pollution Monitoring using Smart phone. David Hasenfratz Olga Saukh Silvan Sturzenegger Lothar Thiele Gas Mobile Prototype System Low cost of and off the shelf Hard ware to monitor the ozone concentration It is feasible to use Gas Mobile in participatory sensing application to increase public awareness and to create spatially fine- grained air pollution maps 2. Measuring the Health Benefits from Reducing Air Pollution Naveen Adhikari He was collected over four seasons from 120 households(641 individuals) and 3 different locations. Estimate of Health Benefit from a reduction in air pollution from current level to national ambient air quality standard level in
  • 21. Sr. No. Research Topic Author Methods& Materials Findings 3. development and contemporary methodological challenges Cizao Ren Shilu Tong Case-crossover and panel studies have shown that there are constituents short terms effects of air pollution on health outcomes. To provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies 4. Housing, home heating and air quality; a public health perspective The Public health perspective Canterbury District Health Board April 2013 The information about housing and air quality is presented in the contex of what is currently know post of earthquakes.
  • 22. References  B.R.Shah, Snehal Popli, “Environmental Studies”, Mahajan Publishing House, 6th Edition,2013.