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Pm deep dive   time management

Pm deep dive time management






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    Pm deep dive   time management Pm deep dive time management Presentation Transcript

    • PM DeepDiveProject Time Management - Niraj Agarwal May 2011 Slide 1
    • Project Time ManagementDefinitionProject Time Management includes the processes required toaccomplish timely completion of the project. The Project TimeManagement processes include the following:• Activity Definition – identifying and documenting specific scheduleactivities that need to be performed to produce the various projectdeliverables identified in the WBS. Definition should be directedtowards fulfilling project objectives• Activity Sequencing – identifying and documenting dependenciesamong schedule activities.• Activity Resource Estimating – estimating the type and quantities ofresources required to perform each schedule activity. May 2011 Slide 2
    • Project Time ManagementDefinition• Activity Duration Estimating – estimating the number of workperiods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities.• Schedule Development – analyzing activity sequences, durations,resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the projectschedule.• Schedule Control – controlling changes to the project schedule. May 2011 Slide 3
    • Activity Definition• Activity Definition is the process of breaking down the work packagesfrom the WBS into individual activities that make up all the work of thework package.• It is part of the iterative process of further decomposing the WBS to amanageable level.• The key to Activity Definition is to identify all the tasks required toproduce the work packages (and ultimately the deliverables)• Activity list should include every activity needed to complete thework of the project, along with an identifier or code so that you cantrack each activity independently.• Milestone is a significant point or event in the project. May 2011 Slide 4
    • Activity DefinitionITTO May 2011 Slide 5
    • Activity SequencingDefinition• Activity Sequencing involves identifying and documentinginteractivity dependencies (Logical Relationships).• Activities must be sequenced accurately in order to support laterdevelopment of a realistic and achievable schedule.• Sequencing can be performed by using project management softwareor by using manual techniques. Manual and automated techniques canalso be used in combination.• First you need to identify the type of dependency, and then you needto determine the specific relationship between the activities. May 2011 Slide 6
    • Activity SequencingDependency - Categories• Mandatory dependency (Hard Logic) is defined by the type of workbeing performed, and one activity is dependent on another activity. Forexample, a utility crew can ’t lay the cable for a new housing area until atrench has been dug.• Discretionary dependency (Preferred Logic, Preferential Logic, SoftLogic) is usually process - or procedure - driven and may include best -practice techniques. An example is a decision to require sign - off oncertain types of activities to conform to an established corporatepractice.• External dependency is a relationship between a project task andsome factor outside the project that drives the scheduling of that task.Installation of a new server depends on when the vendor can deliver theequipment. May 2011 Slide 7
    • Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• A predecessor activity is one that comes before another activity• A successor activity is one that comes after the activity in question• Identifying the correct relationship between dependent activities iscritical to developing an accurate schedule. May 2011 Slide 8
    • Activity SequencingDependency - Logical Relationships• Finish-to-Start (FS) : The initiation of the successor activity dependsupon the completion of the predecessor activity.• Finish-to-Finish (FF) : The completion of the successor activitydepends upon the completion of the predecessor activity.• Start-to-Start (SS) : The initiation of the successor activity dependsupon the initiation of the predecessor activity.• Start-to-Finish (SF) : The completion of the successor activitydepends upon the initiation of the predecessor activity. May 2011 Slide 9
    • Activity SequencingNetwork DiagramIt depicts the project activities and the interrelationships among theseactivities. Shows how the project tasks will flow from beginning to end.• Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)• Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)• Conditional Diagramming Methods (GERT) May 2011 Slide 10
    • Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - PDM• A method of constructing network diagram using nodes to representactivities and arrows to indicate dependencies• Also called Activity On Node (AON) May 2011 Slide 11
    • Activity SequencingNetwork Diagram - ADM• A method of constructing a project network diagram using arrows torepresent the activities and connecting them at nodes to show thedependencies.• Also known as Activity-On-Arrow (AOA).• ADM uses only finish-to-start dependencies and can require the useof “dummy” relationships called dummy activities, which are shown asdashed lines, to define other logical relationships correctly.• Since dummy activities are not actual schedule activities they aregiven a zero value duration. Event Activity Event May 2011 Slide 12
    • Activity SequencingITTO May 2011 Slide 13
    • Activity Resource EstimatingDefinition• Resource is “any factor, except time, required or consumed toaccomplish an activity. Any substantive requirement of an activity thatcan be quantified and defined.”• Estimating schedule activity resources involves determining whatresources (Persons, equipment, or materiel) and what quantities of eachresource will be used, and when each resource will be available toperform project activities.• The Activity Resource Estimating process is closely coordinated withthe Cost Estimating process May 2011 Slide 14
    • Activity Resource EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 15
    • Activity Duration EstimatingDefinition• Activity Duration is the process of estimating the time to completeeach item on the activity list.• This process requires that the amount of work effort required tocomplete the schedule activity is estimated and the assumed amount ofresources to be applied to complete the schedule activity is estimated.Then the number of work periods needed to complete the scheduleactivity can be determined. May 2011 Slide 16
    • Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Analogous estimating• Using the actual duration of a previous, similar schedule activity asthe basis for estimating the duration of a future schedule activity.• It is frequently used to estimate project duration when there is alimited amount of detailed information about the project.• In the early phases of a project it uses historical information andexpert judgment.• It is most reliable when the previous activities are similar in fact andnot just in appearance, and the project team members preparing theestimates have the needed expertise.• Also known as top-down estimating, it is typically the least accuratemeans of obtaining an estimate. May 2011 Slide 17
    • Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - Parametric estimating• A quantitatively based estimating method that multiplies the quantityof work by the rate.• To apply quantitatively based durations, you must know theproductivity rate of the resource performing the task or have a companyor industry standard that can be applied to the task in question.For example, if a typical cable crew can bury 5 miles of cable in a day, itshould take 10 days to bury 50 miles of cable. May 2011 Slide 18
    • Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques - PERT• Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is a method thatthe U.S. Navy developed in the 1950s for the Polaris Missile Program.• Three point estimates used: - Most likely(M) : Most likely duration of the schedule activity - Optimistic(O) : Activity duration is based on a best-case scenario - Pessimistic(P) : Activity duration is based on a worst-case scenario• Estimating based on 3 formulas: i. PERT Duration: T = (P + 4M + O)/6 ii. Standard Task Deviation: S = (P – O)/6 iii.Variance : V = S ² = [(P – O)/6]² May 2011 Slide 19
    • Activity Duration EstimatingTechniques – Bottom up estimating• Involves estimating the durations of individual work items, thensummarizing or rolling-up the individual estimates to get a projecttotal.• The accuracy of bottom-up estimating is driven by the size of theindividual work items: smaller work items increase accuracy.• This is called definitive estimate May 2011 Slide 20
    • Activity Duration EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 21
    • Activity Duration EstimatingITTO May 2011 Slide 22
    • Schedule DevelopmentDefinition• Project schedule development, an iterative process, determinesplanned start and finish dates for project activities. The planned datesfor performing activities and the planned dates for meeting milestones.• Schedule development can require that duration estimates andresource estimates are reviewed and revised to create an approvedproject schedule that can serve as a baseline against which progress canbe tracked.• Schedule development continues throughout the project as workprogresses, the project management plan changes, and anticipated riskevents occur or disappear as new risks are identified. May 2011 Slide 23
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• The Critical Path Method (CPM) calculates the theoretical early startand finish dates, and late start and finish dates, for all scheduleactivities without regard for any resource limitations. - Early start (ES) is the earliest date an activity can begin, as logically constrained by the network. - Early finish (EF) is the earliest date an activity can finish, as logically constrained by the network. - Late finish (LF) is the latest date an activity can complete without impacting the project end date. - Late start (LS) is the latest date you can start an activity without impacting the project end date.• The critical path is the longest full path on the project anddetermines the shortest time to complete the project. May 2011 Slide 24
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Free Slack (Float): The amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor• Total Slack (Float): the amount of time a task can be delayed without delaying the project completion date. This is the key type of float.• Float Formula = LS- ES or LF – EF• Tasks on critical path have no slack or float• Lead: A modification of a logical relationship which allows an acceleration of the successor task. For Example, in a FS relationship with a 10 day lead, the successor can start 10 days prior to the completion of the predecessor.• Lag: A modification of a logical relationship which allows a delay in starting of the successor task. For Example, in a FS relationship with a 4 day lag, the successor can start 4 days after the completion of the predecessor. May 2011 Slide 25
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method• Forward pass - The first step in determining your critical path is tocomplete a forward pass through the network diagram. This means thatyou are working from the left to the right of your network diagram tocalculate early start (ES) and early finish (EF)• Backward pass - The next step to complete the critical path is tocomplete a backward pass . This means you start at the finish of yournetwork diagram and work back though each path until you reach thestart. This gives you two calculations, late finish (LF) and late start (LS) May 2011 Slide 26
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Critical Path Method Network diagram with task durationTask ES EF LS LF FloatA 0 3 0 3 0B 3 5 3 5 0C 3 13 7 17 4D 5 20 5 20 0E 13 16 17 20 4 May 2011 Slide 27
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Crashing• Crashing is a technique that looks at cost and schedule trade-offs.• Crashing is typically implemented by adding more resources to thecritical path tasks in order to complete the project more quickly.• Crashing could also be accomplished by requiring mandatoryovertime for critical path tasks, by speeding up delivery times fromvendors, and so on.• Crashing can produce the desired results if used wisely, but youshould be aware that crashing the schedule may increase risks and/orimpact your budget. May 2011 Slide 28
    • Schedule DevelopmentTechniques - Duration Compression : Fast tracking• Fast tracking is performing two tasks in parallel that were previouslyscheduled to start sequentially.• There is a great deal of risk in fast tracking because there could bereasons why one task must be completed before another.• It often results in rework, increases risk & requires more attention tocommunications. May 2011 Slide 29
    • Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleThe project schedule includes at least a planned start date and plannedfinish date for each schedule activity. Common methods are:• Project schedule network diagrams. These diagrams, with activitydate information, usually show both the project network logic and theproject’s critical path schedule activities.• Bar charts. These charts, with bars representing activities, showactivity start and end dates, as well as expected durations. Bar chartsare relatively easy to read, and are frequently used in managementpresentations.• Milestone charts. These charts are similar to bar charts, but onlyidentify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and keyexternal interfaces. May 2011 Slide 30
    • Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleMilestone chart May 2011 Slide 31
    • Schedule DevelopmentProject ScheduleGantt charts are probably one of the most commonly used methods todisplay the project schedule. They can show milestones, deliverables,subdeliverables, or all the activities of the project, if needed. Ganttcharts typically display the tasks using a horizontal bar chart formatacross a timeline. Gantt charts are easy to read and can show the activitysequences, start and end dates, resource assignment, dependencies, andcritical path. May 2011 Slide 32
    • Schedule DevelopmentITTO May 2011 Slide 33
    • Schedule DevelopmentITTO May 2011 Slide 34
    • Schedule ControlDefinition• Schedule control is concerned with: - Determining the current status of the project schedule - Influencing the factors that create schedule changes - Determining that the project schedule has changed - Managing the actual changes as they occur• Schedule control is a portion of the Integrated Change Control process May 2011 Slide 35
    • Schedule ControlITTO May 2011 Slide 36
    • Schedule ControlITTO May 2011 Slide 37
    • Pop QuizQuestion 1Which of the following is not true for the critical path?A. It has zero float.B. It ’ s the shortest activity sequence in the network.C. You can determine which tasks can start late without impacting theproject end date.D. It controls the project finish date. May 2011 Slide 38
    • Pop QuizQuestion 2You are a project manager for a major movie studio. Youneed to schedule a shoot in Kashmir during ski season. Thisis an example of which of the following?A. External dependencyB. Finish - to - start relationshipC. Mandatory dependencyD. Discretionary dependency May 2011 Slide 39
    • Pop QuizQuestion 3What is analogous estimating also referred to as?A. Bottom - up estimatingB. Expert judgmentC. Parametric estimatingD. Top - down estimating May 2011 Slide 40
    • Pop QuizQuestion 4You are working on your network diagram. Activity A is apredecessor to Activity B. Activity B cannot begin untilActivity A is completed. What is this telling you?A. There is a mandatory dependency between Activity A and Activity B.B. There is a finish - to - start dependency relationship between ActivityA and Activity B.C. Activity A and Activity B are both on the critical path.D. Activity B is a successor to multiple tasks. May 2011 Slide 41
    • Pop QuizQuestion 5What is the most commonly used form of networkdiagramming?A. ADMB. Precedence diagrammingC. CPMD. PERT May 2011 Slide 42
    • Pop QuizQuestion 6What are the crashing and fast track techniques used for?A. Duration compressionB. Activity sequencingC. Precedence diagrammingD. Activity Definition May 2011 Slide 43
    • Pop QuizQuestion 7Which of the following is true for float or slack time?A. It ’ s calculated by adding the durations of all activities and dividingby the number of activities.B. It ’ s time that you add to the project schedule to provide a buffer orcontingency.C. It’s the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delayingthe project completion.D. It is only calculated on the longest path of the network diagram. May 2011 Slide 44
    • Pop QuizQuestion 8Which of the following is not a tool used to determine aproject ’s critical path?A. Forward passB. Mandatory dependencyC. Float calculationD. Backward pass May 2011 Slide 45
    • Pop QuizQuestion 9Activity B on your network diagram has a most likely estimateof 8 days, a pessimistic estimate of 11 days, and an optimisticestimate of 6 days. What is the three – point PERT estimatefor this task rounded to the nearest whole number?A. 11 daysB. 25 daysC. 8 daysD. 6 days May 2011 Slide 46
    • Pop QuizQuestion 10Which of the following is not true for critical path activities?A. The early start is always less than the late start.B. These activities are on the longest path on the network diagram.C. The float is zero.D. The late finish is always the same as the early finish. May 2011 Slide 47
    • Pop QuizQuestion 11You are working on a project in which the time to completethe project has been heavily restricted and funds are short.You have one resource working on preparing six servers foruse in a balanced web array. The servers will all look basicallyalike. What technique can you use to slim down some of thetime required to perform this task in the project?A. Fast trackingB. CrashingC. Reducing the number of serversD. Purchasing a server that runs a number of virtual machinessimultaneously May 2011 Slide 48
    • Pop QuizQuestion 12Your task requires 4 miles of paving, and it will take 30 hoursto complete a mile. On a past project similar to this one, ittook 150 hours to complete. Which of the following is trueregarding this estimate?A. The total estimate for this task is 120 hours, which was derived usingexpert judgment.B. The total estimate for this task is 120 hours, which was derived usingparametric estimating.C. The total estimate for this task is 150 hours, which was derived usinganalogous estimating.D. The total estimate for this task is 150 hours, which was derived usingexpert judgment. May 2011 Slide 49
    • Pop QuizQuestion 13You are in the process of developing a project schedule for anew project for which you have just completed the WBS.What would be the smart next step in figuring out what tasksgo into the project schedule?A. Develop an activity list.B. Determine the critical path tasks.C. Develop a network diagram.D. Estimate activity duration. May 2011 Slide 50
    • Pop QuizQuestion 14You have defined a task in a project schedule in which yourteam members will develop an XML application that uses aMySQL back end. Although the data base administrator(DBA) has plenty of experience with Oracle and MicrosoftSQL Server, he has never been exposed to MySQL. Which ofthe following elements will most likely be affected?A. Resource allocationB. Task estimationC. Activity definitionsD. Determining critical path tasks May 2011 Slide 51
    • Pop QuizQuestion 15How long is the critical path in days in the graphic shownhere?A. 13 daysB. 20 daysC. 27 daysD. 30 days May 2011 Slide 52
    • Pop QuizQuestion 16Which path represents the critical path?A. A-E-F-GB. A-C-D-GC. A-B-D-GD. A-B-D-F-G May 2011 Slide 53
    • Thank You!