PM DeepDiveThe Framework     - Niraj Agarwal                       May 2011                         Slide 1
Agenda Business Enterprises – Project, Programs & Operations Project Management Project Manager Project Phases Projec...
Business Enterprises• Projects—Unique and Temporary. Project Product details areelaborated progressively.• Operations—Ongo...
Project• Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product , service orresult.• Has a definite beginning and end an...
Project vs. OperationsProjects                            Operations• Unique                            • Repeated• Finite...
Programs• Programs are groups of projects managed in a coordinated way toobtain benefits not available from managing the p...
Project ManagementThe application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to projectactivities in order to meet or exce...
Project ManagementGoals• Enhance the probability of project success• Focus on objective - Scope, Time, Cost, Quality• Effe...
Project Manager• The individual responsible for managing a project and achievingproject goals, requirements and customer s...
Project Management Skills• General Business Management (consistently producing results  expected by stakeholders)• Leading...
Project Phases• Project Phases are marked by the completion of a deliverable which isa tangible, verifiable, measurable wo...
Project Phases                 May 2011                  Slide 12
Project Life Cycle• Project Life Cycle defines:  - Technical work performed in each phase  - Who is involved in each phase...
Project Life CycleCost and Staffing levels                           May 2011                            Slide 14
Project Life CycleStakeholder influence                        May 2011                         Slide 15
Project Life CyclePutting it together                      May 2011                       Slide 16
Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle RelationshipsFollowing Figure illustrates the product life cycle starting with t...
StakeholdersIndividuals or Organizations that are directly or indirectly involved• Positively or Negatively impacted by th...
Organizational StructuresThe organization’s structure often constrains the availability ofresources for the project.• Func...
Organizational StructuresFunctional• A hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior.• Staff is grouped by specialt...
Organizational StructuresProjectized•   Team members are often collocated.•   Most of the organization’s resources are inv...
Organizational StructuresMatrixMaintains the functional (vertical) lines of authority while establishinga relatively perma...
Organizational StructuresWeak matrix• Maintains many of the characteristics of a functional organization.• The project man...
Organizational StructuresBalanced matrix• In-between weak and strong.• The project manager has more authority than in a we...
Organizational StructuresStrong matrix• Similar in characteristics to a projectized organization.• There is likely to be a...
Organizational StructuresInfluence on Projects                            May 2011                             Slide 26
Pop QuizQuestion 1What is the definition of a project? Choose two.A. A group of interrelated activities that create a uniq...
Pop QuizQuestion 2What is the term for a group of related projects managed in acoordinated fashion?A. Life cycleB. PhaseC....
Pop QuizQuestion 3Which of the following general management skills does aproject manager employ up to 90 percent of their ...
Pop QuizQuestion 4A project manager has the most authority under whichorganizational structure?A. Project-basedB. Function...
Pop QuizQuestion 5What is one disadvantage of a project - based organization?A. The organization doesn‘t work on anything ...
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Pm deep dive the framework

  1. 1. PM DeepDiveThe Framework - Niraj Agarwal May 2011 Slide 1
  2. 2. Agenda Business Enterprises – Project, Programs & Operations Project Management Project Manager Project Phases Project Life Cycle Stakeholders Organizational Structures May 2011 Slide 2
  3. 3. Business Enterprises• Projects—Unique and Temporary. Project Product details areelaborated progressively.• Operations—Ongoing and Repetitive. Product details are fully knownbefore starting the product creation. Example: auto-partsmanufacturing .• Programs—Combination of both above. They are a series (in asequence, one after another) of related but separate Projects and haveingredients of ongoing operations. Example: Publishing of a weeklymagazine. May 2011 Slide 3
  4. 4. Project• Temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product , service orresult.• Has a definite beginning and end and interrelated activities• Projects are unique – characteristics are progressively elaborated - Progressively: proceeding in steps - Elaborated: worked with care and detail• Scope of project should remain constant even as characteristics are“progressively elaborated”. For example, the project scope or the productwill be broadly described early in the project and made more explicit anddetailed as the project team develops a better and more completeunderstanding of the objectives and deliverables.• The driving forces that create the stimuli for a project are typicallyreferred to as problems, opportunities, or business requirements. May 2011 Slide 4
  5. 5. Project vs. OperationsProjects Operations• Unique • Repeated• Finite duration-temporary • Ongoing• Objective oriented • Operation oriented• Require cross-functional skills • Require functional skills• Value measured • Volume measured May 2011 Slide 5
  6. 6. Programs• Programs are groups of projects managed in a coordinated way toobtain benefits not available from managing the projects individually• Most programs have elements of ongoing operations - Series of repetitive or cyclical undertakings• Projects are often divided into “subprojects” for more manageability - Often contracted out to external organizations May 2011 Slide 6
  7. 7. Project ManagementThe application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to projectactivities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectationsfrom a defined project – balancing the following:• Scope, time, cost, and quality• Stakeholders’ expectations• Requirements (needs) vs. unidentified requirements (expectations) May 2011 Slide 7
  8. 8. Project ManagementGoals• Enhance the probability of project success• Focus on objective - Scope, Time, Cost, Quality• Effective response to rapid changes• Manage utilization of resources effectively• Address stakeholders interests• Minimize and Manage Risks effectively• Achieve project goals• Document Lessons Learnt• Create re-usable data and information for future use• Fulfill Stakeholders expectations• Accomplish Customer Satisfaction! May 2011 Slide 8
  9. 9. Project Manager• The individual responsible for managing a project and achievingproject goals, requirements and customer satisfaction.• He/She is in charge of the project and has to direct and coordinateproject effort and has to make all necessary decisions for ensuringproject success.• He/She has to consistently produce key deliverables.• As far as the project is concerned, the buck stops at him or her! May 2011 Slide 9
  10. 10. Project Management Skills• General Business Management (consistently producing results expected by stakeholders)• Leading (establishing direction, aligning resources, motivating)• Communicating (clear, unambiguous, and complete)• Negotiating (conferring with others to reach an agreement)• Problem Solving (definition and decision making) - Distinguish causes and symptoms - Identify viable solutions• Influencing Organization (understanding power and politics) May 2011 Slide 10
  11. 11. Project Phases• Project Phases are marked by the completion of a deliverable which isa tangible, verifiable, measurable work product or output.• Deliverables from one phase are usually reviewed for completenessand accuracy and approved before work starts on the next phase.Phase-end reviews are also called phase exits, phase gates, or kill points• Set of defined work procedures to establish management control• Generally in sequential logic, designed to ensure proper definition of the product• Generally a project life-cycle consists of four phases : ◦ Concept, Design, Execution/Implementation, Finish or closeout May 2011 Slide 11
  12. 12. Project Phases May 2011 Slide 12
  13. 13. Project Life Cycle• Project Life Cycle defines: - Technical work performed in each phase - Who is involved in each phase• Project Phases can overlap – “Fast Tracking”• Common Characteristics of Project Life Cycles: - Cost and Staffing levels are low at start and move higher towards the end - Probability of successfully completing project is low at beginning, higher towards the end as project continues - Stakeholder influence is high at the beginning and progressively lowers as project continues May 2011 Slide 13
  14. 14. Project Life CycleCost and Staffing levels May 2011 Slide 14
  15. 15. Project Life CycleStakeholder influence May 2011 Slide 15
  16. 16. Project Life CyclePutting it together May 2011 Slide 16
  17. 17. Project Life Cycle and Product Life Cycle RelationshipsFollowing Figure illustrates the product life cycle starting with thebusiness plan, through idea, to product, ongoing operations (andMaintenance) and product divestment (Disposal). May 2011 Slide 17
  18. 18. StakeholdersIndividuals or Organizations that are directly or indirectly involved• Positively or Negatively impacted by the outcome of the Project• Can influence project effort or the outcome of the project effort• Often have conflicting expectations and objectives• In general, differences should be resolved in favor of the customer – individual(s) or organization(s) that will use the outcome of the project• Stakeholder management is a proactive task - Project Mangers must determine all stakeholders and incorporate their needs into the project May 2011 Slide 18
  19. 19. Organizational StructuresThe organization’s structure often constrains the availability ofresources for the project.• Functional• Projectized• Matrix May 2011 Slide 19
  20. 20. Organizational StructuresFunctional• A hierarchy where each employee has one clear superior.• Staff is grouped by specialty, such as production, marketing,engineering, and accounting.• Project work is done independently within each department. May 2011 Slide 20
  21. 21. Organizational StructuresProjectized• Team members are often collocated.• Most of the organization’s resources are involved in project work.• Project managers have a great deal of independence and authority.• Departments either report directly to the project manager or provideservices to the various projects. May 2011 Slide 21
  22. 22. Organizational StructuresMatrixMaintains the functional (vertical) lines of authority while establishinga relatively permanent horizontal structure to interact with allfunctional units supporting the projects.• Weak matrix• Balanced matrix• Strong matrix May 2011 Slide 22
  23. 23. Organizational StructuresWeak matrix• Maintains many of the characteristics of a functional organization.• The project manager’s role is more like that of a project coordinatoror project expeditor. May 2011 Slide 23
  24. 24. Organizational StructuresBalanced matrix• In-between weak and strong.• The project manager has more authority than in a weak matrix.• The PM is more likely to be full-time than part-time as in a weakmatrix. May 2011 Slide 24
  25. 25. Organizational StructuresStrong matrix• Similar in characteristics to a projectized organization.• There is likely to be a department of project managers, which are full-time. May 2011 Slide 25
  26. 26. Organizational StructuresInfluence on Projects May 2011 Slide 26
  27. 27. Pop QuizQuestion 1What is the definition of a project? Choose two.A. A group of interrelated activities that create a unique benefit to theorganizationB. Through the use of project management techniques, which arerepeatable processes, a series of actions that are performed to producethe same result multiple timesC. A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product,service, or resultD. A process used to generate profit, improve market share, or adhereto legal requirementsE. A time - constrained endeavor with assigned resources responsiblefor meeting the goals of the project according to the quality standards May 2011 Slide 27
  28. 28. Pop QuizQuestion 2What is the term for a group of related projects managed in acoordinated fashion?A. Life cycleB. PhaseC. Process groupD. Program May 2011 Slide 28
  29. 29. Pop QuizQuestion 3Which of the following general management skills does aproject manager employ up to 90 percent of their time?A. ProgrammingB. CommunicationsC. LeadershipD. Problem solving May 2011 Slide 29
  30. 30. Pop QuizQuestion 4A project manager has the most authority under whichorganizational structure?A. Project-basedB. FunctionalC. Balanced matrixD. Strong matrix May 2011 Slide 30
  31. 31. Pop QuizQuestion 5What is one disadvantage of a project - based organization?A. The organization doesn‘t work on anything that isn’t project-related.B. Costs are high because specialized skills are required to completeprojects in this type of structure.C. The functional managers have control over which team members areassigned to projects.D. Once the project is completed, the project team members may nothave other projects to work on. May 2011 Slide 31
  32. 32. Thank You!
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