William Henry Gates III - BILL GATES (born October 28, 1955) is an American programmer, inventor, And Business Magnate. Gates is the former chief executive and current chairman of Microsoft , the world’s largest personal-computer software company. ( Co – Founded with Paul Allen) He is consistently ranked among the worlds wealthiest people and was the wealthiest overall from 1995 to 2009. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the positions of CEO and chief software architect, and remains the largest individual shareholder. He has also authored and co-authored several books. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bill_Gates
Harvard University (Dropped out) US$ 66 billion (2012) In Indian Rupees 3572580000000.00 ₹
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational software corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington. That develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services related to computing. The company was founded on April 4, 1975. Microsoft is the worlds largest software maker measured by revenues. It is also one of the worlds most valuable companies. Total Assets US$ 121.2 billion (2012) 6560556000000.00 ₹ In 1975, Gates and Allen form a partnership called Microsoft. Like most start-ups, Microsoft begins small, but has a huge vision- “A computer on every desktop and in every home.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft
MS-DOS In June 1980, Gates and Allen hire Gates’ former Harvard classmate Steve Ballmer to help run the company. The next month, IBM approaches Microsoft about a project code-named "Chess." In response, Microsoft focuses on a new operating system—the software that manages, or runs, the computer hardware and also serves to bridge the gap between the computer hardware and programs, such as a word processor. It’s the foundation on which computer programs can run. They name their new operating system "MS-DOS." When the IBM PC running MS-DOS ships in 1981, it introduces a whole new language to the general public. Typing “C:” and various cryptic commands gradually becomes part of daily work. MS-DOS is effective, but also proves difficult to understand for many people. There has to be a better way to build an operating system. Geek trivia: MS-DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System.
1982–1985: Introducing Windows 1.0 On November 20, 1985, two years after the initial announcement, Microsoft ships Windows 1.0. Now, rather than typing MS-DOS commands, you just move a mouse to point and click your way through screens, or “windows.” There are drop-down menus, scroll bars, icons, and dialog boxes that make programs easier to learn and use. Youre able to switch among several programs without having to quit and restart each one. Windows 1.0 ships with several programs, including MS-DOS file management, Paint, Windows Writer, Notepad, Calculator, and a calendar, and clock to help you manage day-to-day activities. There’s even a game—Reversi.Geek trivia: Remember floppy disks and kilobytes? Windows 1.0 requires a minimumof 256 kilobytes (KB), two double-sided floppy disk drives, and a graphics adaptercard. A hard disk and 512 KB memory is recommended for running multiple programsor when using DOS 3.0 or higher.
When Windows 1.x starts, it launches the MS-DOS Executive. The MS-DOS executive is kind oflike File Manager or Explorer, except there are no icons and no drag-and-drop. Programs anddirectories can be opened by double-clicking, but other disk functions must be done through themenu.
In Windows 1.x you are stuck with tiled windows. The control in the upper right corner of eachwindow is a "resize" control. Dragging it around will move the top edge of the window anddouble-clicking will "zoom" the window to full screen. Some programs have a "resize" control inthe lower right corner of the window as well.
The control in the upper left of the window is the system box. Clicking once on this box bringsup a menu of available window options for the current window. In this version of Windows, italso contains the applications "About" information.
This screen shot shows the Windows 1.01 version of Notepad. It has a very small fixed sized textbuffer, 16k or so, and therefore can only open small text files.
This version of Notepad even shows how much space is free in its text buffer.
This screen shot shows Notepad in a "zoomed" state, taking up the full screen.
Here, The Windows 1.x calculator and the Windows clipboard demonstrates the abilityof Windows to share data between applications.
Now the data is being pasted in to Microsoft Paint.This version of Paint is only capable of monochrome graphics and saves files in an .MSPformat.
This is the screen color section of the Windows control panel. The gradient selection barssuggests possible support for true color graphics. Note that there is no way to easily selectsolid colors from any existing pallet
A typical Windows dialog box showing option buttons, check boxes, a text box andcommand buttons. These controls are provided by Windows, so the program does notneed to worry about drawing or controlling them.
The windows can be moved around the screen and can be tiled in different ways other thanhorizontally. This picture shows reversi and the clock tiled in the corner of the screen,although the edges of all of the windows are still locked together.
Windows 1.01 can run some dos applications in a window. Surprisingly this version of windowscan start windows applications from the command prompt. When running multiple DOSapplications the applications appear to be multitasked.
1987–1992: Windows 2.0–2.11—More windows, more speed On December 9, 1987 Microsoft releases Windows 2.0 with desktop icons and expanded memory. With improved graphics support, you can now overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up your work. Some software developers write their first Windows–based programs for this release. In 1988, Microsoft becomes the world’s largest PC software company based on sales. Computers are starting to become a part of daily life for some office workers. Geek trivia: Control Panel makes its first appearance in Windows 2.0.
Like Windows 1.x, Windows 2.x starts up with the Windows MS-DOS Executive. Windowsversion 2.03 runs only in real mode like 1.x, however Windows 2.1 introduced 386 enhancedmode, which allowed Windows to use memory beyond 640k.
Windows 2.x is packaged with the same applications as Windows 1.x, but the windowmanagement is significantly improved. Overlapping windows are allowed, and windowsmay be freely resized and moved on the screen. The window controls now consist of asystem box in the upper left, and a minimze and maximize or restore button in the upperright if they are applicable to the particular window.
A dialog box, showing that controls have not changed much from 1.x.
Minimized icons can be freely moved anywhere on the desktop. The area in the lowerright corner of windows with scroll bars that join is now a real "resize" control. Thecorners of any regular window can also be used to resize to window
1990–1994: Windows 3.0–Windows NT—Getting the graphics On May 22, 1990, Microsoft announces Windows 3.0, followed shortly by Windows 3.1 in 1992. Taken together, they sell 10 million copies in their first 2 years, making this the most widely used Windows operating system yet. The scale of this success causes Microsoft to revise earlier plans. Virtual Memory improves visual graphics. In 1990 Windows starts to look like the versions to come. Windows now has significantly better performance, advanced graphics with 16 colors, and improved icons. Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager arrive in Windows 3.0.
Windows software is installed with floppy discs bought in large boxes with heavy instruction manuals. The popularity of Windows 3.0 grows with the release of a new Windows software development kit (SDK), which helps software developers focus more on writing programs and less on writing device drivers. Windows is increasingly used at work and home and now includes games like Solitaire, Hearts, and Minesweeper. For the first time, PCs become an integral part of the emerging client/server computing evolution.
About this time Microsoft finally realized that the GUI was catching on. Functionally, the windowmanagement is not much different than version 2.x, however they took some steps to make itlook fancier. Command buttons and the window controls now have a 3D look. However this3Dnes did not extend to many other window controls.Microsoft replaced the old MS-DOS Executive with Program Manager and its companion, FileManager. Program manager gives the user large Macintosh like icons to click on to startprograms. Although program groups can not be imbedded in other program groups, the iconsare drag and dropable between groups.
This is File Manager. Files can be managed relatively easily with the ability to drag anddrop between folders and drives.
Windows 3.0 also includes a completely revamped control panel. Like Program Manager, thecontrol panel now displays using large icons.
The Windows 3.0 control panel also allows you to change the background to display a specifiedpattern or bit-mapped graphic. Also, double-clicking on the desktop starts the Taskman program.Taskman is a small program that can be used for switching tasks more easily if many windowsare open, rearranging the open windows, and rearranging minimized program icons.
Windows 3.0 also includes a new, very advanced hypertext help system. Yes, it looks like a webbrowser. The Windows 3.x help files worked quite well, unfortunately Microsoft ditched thisformat in Windows 95, probably so they could re-introduce this very same style of help withHyper Help in Windows 98.
Another new application that was included with Windows 3.0 is Windows Paintbrush, areplacement for the old Microsoft Paint program in 1.x and 2.x. This program actuallyhandles color and supports .BMP and .PCX graphics formats.
The infamous Windows Solitaire is now included with Windows!
1995–2001: Windows 95—the PC comes of age (and dont forget the Internet) On August 24, 1995, Microsoft releases Windows 95, selling a record-setting 7 million copies in the first five weeks. It’s the most publicized launch Microsoft has ever taken on. This is the era of fax/modems, e-mail, the new online world, and dazzling multimedia games and educational software. Windows 95 has built-in Internet support, dial-up networking, and new Plug and Play capabilities that make it easy to install hardware and software. The 32-bit operating system also offers enhanced multimedia capabilities, more powerful features for mobile computing, and integrated networking. At the time of the Windows 95 release, the previous Windows and MS-DOS operating systems are running on about 80 percent of the world’s PCs. Windows 95 is the upgrade to these operating systems. It’s available in 12 languages. Windows 95 features the first appearance of the Start menu, taskbar, and minimize, maximize, and close buttons on each window. In the summer of 1995, the first version of ”Internet Explorer” is released.
"My Computer" - a folder containing a list of drives, printers, and dial up connections."Network Neighborhood" - A list of computers on the network. Shown if a network is installed."Inbox" - Microsoft Exchange (AKA Windows Messaging), a Mail and Fax program."Recycle Bin" - A folder that holds "deleted" files until emptied."The Microsoft Network" - Advertising for Microsofts own MSN dial-up service.
On the Windows 95 desktop: Files and folders are represented on the desktop as icons. The desktop, is itself a folder that holds files. Drives are listed in a folder called "My Computer". Right-click menus provide direct file manipulation. "New" file menu for creating files from installed templates.
you can change the size of icons, fonts, scroll bars, and other window metrics.
Multimedia was the big buzzword of the day.Windows 95 includes a video player, sound player, and numerous drivers for hardware ofthe time.
An important addition in Windows 95 was support for "Plug and Play" hardware. With Plug andPlay Windows can automatically tell when a new device is added, automatically install drivers,and automatically configures it.
1998–2000: Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me Released on June 25, 1998, Windows 98 is the first version of Windows designed specifically for consumers. PCs are common at work and home, and Internet cafes where you can get online are popping up. Windows 98 is described as an operating system that “Works Better, Plays Better.” With Windows 98, you can find information more easily on your PC as well as the Internet. Other improvements include the ability to open and close programs more quickly, and support for reading DVD discs and universal serial bus (USB) devices. Another first appearance is the Quick Launch bar, which lets you run programs without having to browse the Start menu or look for them on the desktop. Geek trivia: Windows 98 is the last version based on MS-DOS.
In Windows 98, the old Windows Help has been replaced by "Hyper Help" which is acomponent of Microsoft Internet Explorer.
After at least 13 years of development, Windows Notepad is still incapable of working with anytext file larger than approximately 60K bytes.
1Windows 3.0 introduced the ability to put a picture on the desktops background. Windows 98introduces the ability to put a LIVE web page on the background. Hyper links are clickable andgraphics can animate. Basically there is an IE window open but pushed to the background
2001–2005: Windows XP—Stable, usable, and fastOn October 25, 2001, Windows XP is released with a redesigned look and feel thatscentered on usability and a unified Help and Support services center. It’s available in 25languages. From the mid-1970s until the release of Windows XP, about 1 billion PCs havebeen shipped worldwide.For Microsoft, Windows XP will become one of its best-selling products in the comingyears. It’s both fast and stable. Navigating the Start menu, taskbar, and Control Panel aremore intuitive. Awareness of computer viruses and hackers increases, but fears are to acertain extent calmed by the online delivery of security updates. Consumers begin tounderstand warnings about suspicious attachments and viruses. There’s more emphasison Help and Support.
Windows XP has several editions during these years: Windows XP 64-bit Edition (2001) is the first Microsoft operating system for 64- bit processors designed for working with large amounts of memory and projects such as movie special effects, 3D animations, engineering, and scientific programs. Windows XP Media Center Edition (2002) is made for home computing and entertainment. You can browse the Internet, watch live television, enjoy digital music and video collections, and watch DVDs. Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (2002) realizes the vision of pen-based computing. Tablet PCs include a digital pen for handwriting recognition and you can use the mouse or keyboard, too.
2006–2008: Windows Vista—Smart on securityWindows Vista is released in 2006 with the strongest security system yet. UserAccount Control helps prevent potentially harmful software from making changes toyour computer. In Windows Vista Ultimate, BitLocker Drive Encryption providesbetter data protection for your computer, as laptop sales and security needsincrease. Windows Vista also features enhancements to Windows Media Player asmore and more people come to see their PCs as central locations for digital media.Here you can watch television, view and send photographs, and edit videos.Geek trivia: More than 1.5 million devices are compatiblewith Windows Vista at launch.
2009: Windows 7 Windows 7 was built for the wireless world that arose in the late 2000s. By the time it was released, laptops were outselling desktops, and it had become common to connect to public wireless hotspots in coffee shops and private networks in the home. Windows 7 included new ways to work with windows—like Snap, Peek, and Shake—which both improved functionality and made the interface more fun to use. It also marked the debut of Windows Touch, which let touchscreen users browse the web, flip through photos, and open files and folders.Geek trivia: Windows 7 was evaluated by 8 million beta testers worldwide before itwas released.
2012: Windows 8 Windows 8 is Windows reimagined from the chipset to the user experience. It functions as both a tablet for entertainment and a full-featured PC for getting things done. It introduces a totally new interface that works smoothly for both touch and mouse and keyboard. Windows 8 also includes enhancements of the familiar Windows desktop, with a new taskbar and streamlined file management. Windows 8 features a Start screen with tiles that connect to people, files, apps, and websites. Apps are front and center, with access to a new place to get apps— theWindows Store—built right in to the Start screen. Along with Windows 8, Microsoft also launched Windows RT, which runs on some tablets and PCs. Windows RT is designed for sleek devices and long battery life, and exclusively runs apps from the Windows Store. It also comes with a built-in version of Office thats optimized for touchscreens.
ReferenceAll Images taken • http://toastytech.com/guis/indexwindows.html from:-History of • http://windows.microsoft.com/en-IN/windows/historywindows