Intellectual Property in India: The Substantive Law


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Also delivered in Liverpool on 18 Sep 2008. Presentation discusses India\'s obligations under TRIPs and various treaties and conventions and assesses how well it has lived up to them. Introduces the main intellectual property statutes, the IP institutions and the courts system. Finally considers the use that has been made of the IP system in India.

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  • Intellectual Property in India: The Substantive Law

    1. 1. Intellectual Property in India: the Substantive Law Martins, Building, Liverpool Tuesday 18 September 2007 Jane Lambert Barrister
    2. 2. TRIPs Obligations <ul><li>India is founder member of World Trade Organization (“WTO”) </li></ul><ul><li>WTO Membership is conditional upon compliance with TRIPs (Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) </li></ul>
    3. 3. TRIPs Obligations <ul><li>TRIPs requires WTO members to protect: </li></ul><ul><li>original artistic and literary works including software, databases, films and sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>performances by actors, dancers, musicians, singers and other performers </li></ul>
    4. 4. TRIPs Obligations <ul><li>TRIPs requires WTO members to protect: </li></ul><ul><li>broadcasts and sound recordings </li></ul><ul><li>trade marks </li></ul><ul><li>geographical indications </li></ul><ul><li>industrial designs </li></ul>
    5. 5. TRIPs Obligations <ul><li>TRIPs requires WTO members to protect: </li></ul><ul><li>inventions in all fields of technology </li></ul><ul><li>plant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>semiconductor topographies </li></ul><ul><li>undisclosed information </li></ul>
    6. 6. TRIPs Obligations <ul><li>TRIPs also requires WTO members to provide: </li></ul><ul><li>fair and inexpensive civil remedies </li></ul><ul><li>criminal sanctions for counterfeiting and piracy </li></ul><ul><li>customs controls at air and sea ports and frontiers </li></ul>
    7. 7. Has India complied with TRIPs? <ul><li>On the whole, yes </li></ul><ul><li>enacted new trade mark, design, plant protection and semi-conductor topography statutes and amended patent and copyright laws </li></ul><ul><li>imposed criminal liability for counterfeiting and piracy </li></ul>
    8. 8. Has India complied with TRIPs? <ul><li>Only two complaints against it: </li></ul><ul><li>DS55 by USA in 1996 and DS79 by EC in 1997 on patent protection for pharmaceuticals which India rectified </li></ul><ul><li>appointed high level commission to report on compatibility with TRIPs on change of patent law </li></ul>
    9. 9. Overview <ul><li>Many similarities with UK law but several significant differences: </li></ul><ul><li>registration of copyrights and semi-conductor topographies </li></ul><ul><li>threats action in copyright </li></ul><ul><li>not yet party to Madrid Protocol or Hague convention </li></ul><ul><li>no direct protection of functional designs </li></ul>
    10. 10. Statutes <ul><li>Patents Act 1970 amended 1999, 2002 and 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Designs Act 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Marks Act 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indication of Goods (Registration and Protections) Act 1999 </li></ul>
    11. 11. Statutes <ul><li>Copyright Act 1957 amended 1983, 1984, 1992, 1994 and 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights’ Act 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Design Act 2000 </li></ul>
    12. 12. Intellectual Property Office <ul><li>Controller-General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks at Mumbai (Bombay) </li></ul><ul><li>Patent Office at Kolkatta (Calcutta) and branches at Chennai (Madras), Mumbai and Delhi for patents and designs </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Marks at Trade Marks Registry at Mumbai and regional offices at Chennai, Kolkatta, Delhi and Ahmedabad </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications at Geographical Indications Registry at Chennai </li></ul>
    13. 13. Other Registries <ul><li>Copyright Office, Department of Secondary and Higher Education </li></ul><ul><li>Registry of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits Layout-Designs, Department of Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Varieties Registry, Department of Agriculture and Co-operation </li></ul>
    14. 14. Courts and Tribunals <ul><li>Intellectual Property Appellate Board for appeals from Registrar of Trade Marks (may soon have design and patents jurisdiction) </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright Tribunal for appeals from Registrar of Copyrights </li></ul><ul><li>Regional High Courts for infringement claims </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court of India </li></ul>
    15. 15. Use of IP System in 2006 <ul><li>Patents </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: 28,882 </li></ul><ul><li>Grants: 7,359 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Marks </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: 103,419 </li></ul><ul><li>Registrations: 109,361 </li></ul>
    16. 16. Use of IP System in 2006 <ul><li>Designs </li></ul><ul><li>Applications: 5,372 </li></ul><ul><li>Registrations: 4,431 </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Indications </li></ul><ul><li>Registrations: </li></ul><ul><li>Includes “Darjeeling Tea” and “Mysore Silk” </li></ul>
    17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>India not like China, Korea or Japan in terms of massive volumes of patent applications </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property tends to be brand and design rather than technology focussed </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, firms like Ranbaxy and Tata are major users of worldwide patent system. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Any Questions Jane Lambert nipc The Media Centre 7 Northumberland Street Huddersfield HD1 1RL Tel 0870 990 5081