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Anatom...
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

Heart
Blood vessels
•Arteries
•Veins
•Capillaries
Blood
•Plasma
•Formed elements
•RBC
•WBC
•Platele...
CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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THE HEART

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ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF HEART VALVES

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THE HEART

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THE HEART & ITS VESSELS
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THE HEART & ITS VESSELS
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CIRCULATION

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CIRCULATION

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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PULSE POINTS

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM
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THE VASCULAR SYSTEM

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• The only fluid tissue in the human body
• Classified as a connective tissue
– Living cells = formed elements

BLOOD

– N...
BLOOD
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CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS

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CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS

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ERYTHROCYTES (RED BLOOD CELLS)
• The main function is to carry oxygen
• Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes
– Biconcave di...
HEMOGLOBIN
• Iron-containing protein
• Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen
• Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxyge...
LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS)
• Crucial in the body’s defense against disease
• These are complete cells, with a nucleus ...
LEUKOCYTE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD
• Normal levels are between 4,000 and 11,000 cells
per millimeter
• Abnormal leukocyte level...
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES
Granulocytes
Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils

Agran...
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: GRANULOCYTES
• Neutrophils
– Multilobed nucleus with fine granules
– Act as phagocytes at active site...
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: AGRANULOCYTES
• Lymphocytes
– Nucleus fills most of the cell
– Play an important role in the immune r...
TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES

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PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES)
• Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells
(megakaryocytes)
• Needed for the clotting process

•...
HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS
• Blood contains genetically determined
proteins
• A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by
the i...
ABO BLOOD GROUPS
• Based on the presence or absence of two
antigens
– Type A
– Type B

• The presence of both A and B is c...
BLOOD TYPING
• Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and antiB serum
• Coagulation or no coagulation leads to
determining bl...
BLOOD TYPING

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BLOOD GROUPS AND TRANSFUSIONS
• Large losses of blood have serious
consequences
– Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness...
RH BLOOD GROUPS
• Named because of the presence or absence of
one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D)
• Most Americans a...
RH DANGERS DURING PREGNANCY
• The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can
cause problems for the unborn child

...
DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF BLOOD
• Sites of blood cell formation
– The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood
cell ...
Unit 9 Cardiovascular System
Unit 9 Cardiovascular System
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Unit 9 Cardiovascular System

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Unit 9 Cardiovascular System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Heart Blood vessels •Arteries •Veins •Capillaries Blood •Plasma •Formed elements •RBC •WBC •Platelets Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  3. 3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  4. 4. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  5. 5. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  6. 6. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  7. 7. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  8. 8. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  9. 9. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  10. 10. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  11. 11. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  12. 12. ANATOMICAL LANDMARKS OF HEART VALVES Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. THE HEART Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  14. 14. Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
  15. 15. Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  16. 16. THE HEART & ITS VESSELS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  17. 17. THE HEART & ITS VESSELS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. CIRCULATION Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. CIRCULATION Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  25. 25. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  26. 26. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  27. 27. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  28. 28. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  33. 33. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  34. 34. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
  35. 35. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  36. 36. PULSE POINTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  38. 38. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  39. 39. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 41
  41. 41. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. THE VASCULAR SYSTEM Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. • The only fluid tissue in the human body • Classified as a connective tissue – Living cells = formed elements BLOOD – Non-living matrix = plasma Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  45. 45. BLOOD Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  46. 46. CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  47. 47. CHARACTERISTICS OF FORMED ELEMENTS Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  48. 48. ERYTHROCYTES (RED BLOOD CELLS) • The main function is to carry oxygen • Anatomy of circulating erythrocytes – Biconcave disks – Essentially bags of hemoglobin – Anucleate (no nucleus) – Contain very few organelles • Outnumber white blood cells 1000:1 Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  49. 49. HEMOGLOBIN • Iron-containing protein • Binds strongly, but reversibly, to oxygen • Each hemoglobin molecule has four oxygen binding sites • Each erythrocyte has 250 million hemoglobin molecules Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  50. 50. LEUKOCYTES (WHITE BLOOD CELLS) • Crucial in the body’s defense against disease • These are complete cells, with a nucleus and organelles • Able to move into and out of blood vessels (diapedesis) • Can move by amoeboid motion • Can respond to chemicals released by damaged tissues Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 51
  51. 51. LEUKOCYTE LEVELS IN THE BLOOD • Normal levels are between 4,000 and 11,000 cells per millimeter • Abnormal leukocyte levels – Leukocytosis • Above 11,000 leukocytes/ml • Generally indicates an infection – Leukopenia • Abnormally low leukocyte level • Commonly caused by certain drugs Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  52. 52. TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES Granulocytes Granules in their cytoplasm can be stained Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils Agranulocytes Lack visible cytoplasmic granules Lymphocytes and monocytes Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  53. 53. TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: GRANULOCYTES • Neutrophils – Multilobed nucleus with fine granules – Act as phagocytes at active sites of infection • Eosinophils – Large brick-red cytoplasmic granules – Found in repsonse to allergies and parasitic worms • Basophils – Have histamine-containing granules – Initiate inflammation Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  54. 54. TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES: AGRANULOCYTES • Lymphocytes – Nucleus fills most of the cell – Play an important role in the immune response • Monocytes – Largest of the white blood cells – Function as macrophages – Important in fighting chronic infection Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  55. 55. TYPES OF LEUKOCYTES Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  56. 56. PLATELETS (THROMBOCYTES) • Derived from ruptured multinucleate cells (megakaryocytes) • Needed for the clotting process • Normal platelet count = 300,000/mm3 Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  57. 57. HUMAN BLOOD GROUPS • Blood contains genetically determined proteins • A foreign protein (antigen) may be attacked by the immune system • Blood is “typed” by using antibodies that will cause blood with certain proteins to clump (agglutination) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  58. 58. ABO BLOOD GROUPS • Based on the presence or absence of two antigens – Type A – Type B • The presence of both A and B is called type AB • The presence of either A or B is called types A and B, respectively • The lack of these antigens is called type O Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  59. 59. BLOOD TYPING • Blood samples are mixed with anti-A and antiB serum • Coagulation or no coagulation leads to determining blood type • Typing for ABO and Rh factors is done in the same manner • Cross matching – testing for agglutination of donor RBCs by the recipient’s serum, and vice versa Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 60
  60. 60. BLOOD TYPING Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  61. 61. BLOOD GROUPS AND TRANSFUSIONS • Large losses of blood have serious consequences – Loss of 15 to 30 percent causes weakness – Loss of over 30 percent causes shock, which can be fatal • Transfusions are the only way to replace blood quickly • Transfused blood must be of the same blood group Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 62
  62. 62. RH BLOOD GROUPS • Named because of the presence or absence of one of eight Rh antigens (agglutinogen D) • Most Americans are Rh+ • Problems can occur in mixing Rh+ blood into a body with Rh– blood *Danger is only when the mother is Rh– and the father is Rh+, and the child inherits the Rh+ factor Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 63
  63. 63. RH DANGERS DURING PREGNANCY • The mismatch of an Rh– mother carrying an Rh+ baby can cause problems for the unborn child – The first pregnancy usually proceeds without problems – The immune system is sensitized after the first pregnancy – In a second pregnancy, the mother’s immune system produces antibodies to attack the Rh+ blood (hemolytic disease of the newborn) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  64. 64. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF BLOOD • Sites of blood cell formation – The fetal liver and spleen are early sites of blood cell formation – Bone marrow takes over hematopoiesis by the seventh month • Fetal hemoglobin differs from hemoglobin produced after birth Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
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