Unit 6 Nervous System

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Unit 6 Nervous System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. UNIT 6 NERVOUS SYSTEM HILARIO CRUZADA NOVENO JR., MAN, MSN, RN Lecturer ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 2
  3. 3. Figure 8.1 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  4. 4. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( • Sensory input ( ) ) ) – gathering information ( – To monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body ( ) – Changes depend on the stimuli ( ) • Integration ( ) – To process and interpret sensory input and decide if action is needed ( ) • Motor output ( ) – A response to integrated stimuli ( – The response activates muscles or glands ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 5
  6. 6. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Central nervous system (CNS) [ ] – Brain ( ) – Spinal cord ( ) • Peripheral nervous system (PNS) [ ] – Nerve outside the brain and spinal cord ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  7. 7. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Sensory (afferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( ) – Nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  8. 8. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) • Motor (efferent) division ( – Two subdivisions ( • Somatic nervous system ( ( ) • Autonomic nervous system ( involuntary ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) ): voluntary ): 8
  9. 9. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  10. 10. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 10 ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM ( )
  11. 11. • Sympathetic: epinephrine (epi) or adrenaline (noradrenaline) [norepinephrine (NE)] • Parasympathetic: acetylcholince (Ach) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  12. 12. NERVOUS TISSUE ( • Astrocytes ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) ) – Abundant, star-shaped cells ( ) – Brace neurons ( ) – Form barrier between capillaries and neurons ( ) – Control the chemical environment of the brain ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  13. 13. NERVOUS TISSUE ( • Astrocytes ( ANATOMY ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  14. 14. NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Microglia ( ) – Spider-like phagocytes ( – Dispose of debris ( ANATOMY ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) 14
  15. 15. NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Ependymal cells ( ) – Line cavities of the brain and spinal cord ( ) – Circulate cerebrospinal fluid ( ANATOMY ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 15
  16. 16. NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( ) • Oligodendrocytes – Produce myelin sheath around nerve fibers in the central nervous system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  17. 17. NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Satellite cells ( ) ) – Protect neuron cell bodies ( ) • Schwann cells ( ) – Form myelin sheath in the peripheral nervous () system ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  18. 18. NERVOUS TISSUE ( ): SUPPORT CELLS (NEUROGLIA) ( • Neurons (nerve cells) ( ) ) – Cells specialized to transmit messages ( ) – Major regions of neurons ( ) • Cell body ( ) – nucleus and metabolic center of the cell ( ) • Processes ( ) – fibers that extend from the cell body ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  19. 19. NEURON ANATOMY • Cell body – Nissl substance – specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum – Neurofibrils – intermediate cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape – Nucleus – Large nucleolus • Extensions outside the cell body – Dendrites – conduct impulses toward the cell body – Axons – conduct impulses away from the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  20. 20. Figure 8.3 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  21. 21. Figure 8.4 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  22. 22. Figure 8.4a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  23. 23. Figure 8.4b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  24. 24. Figure 8.4c ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  25. 25. Figure 8.5 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  26. 26. Figure 8.5a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  27. 27. Figure 8.5b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  28. 28. Figure 8.5c ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  29. 29. Figure 8.5d ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  30. 30. Figure 8.5e ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  31. 31. Figure 8.6 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  32. 32. Figure 8.6a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  33. 33. Figure 8.6b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  34. 34. AXONS AND NERVE IMPULSES ( ) • Axons end in axonal terminals ( ) • Axonal terminals contain vesicles with neurotransmitters ( ) • Axonal terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap ( ) – Synaptic cleft ( ) – gap between adjacent neurons ( ) – Synapse ( ) – junction between nerves ( ) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  35. 35. NERVE FIBER COVERINGS • Schwann cells – produce myelin sheaths in jelly-roll like fashion • Nodes of Ranvier – gaps in myelin sheath along the axon ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
  36. 36. NEURON CELL BODY LOCATION • Most are found in the central nervous system – Gray matter – cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers – Nuclei – clusters of cell bodies within the white matter of the central nervous system • Ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  37. 37. FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Sensory (afferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the sensory receptors • Cutaneous sense organs • Proprioceptors – detect stretch or tension • Motor (efferent) neurons – Carry impulses from the central nervous system • Interneurons (association neurons) – Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system – Connect sensory and motor neurons ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  38. 38. NEURON CLASSIFICATION ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  39. 39. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Multipolar neurons – many extensions from the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  40. 40. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Bipolar neurons – one axon and one dendrite ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  41. 41. STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION OF NEURONS • Unipolar neurons – have a short single process leaving the cell body ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 41
  42. 42. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF NEURONS • Irritability – ability to respond to stimuli • Conductivity – ability to transmit an impulse • The plasma membrane at rest is polarized – Fewer positive ions are inside the cell than outside the cell ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  43. 43. STARTING A NERVE IMPULSE • Depolarization – a stimulus depolarizes the neuron’s membrane • A depolarized membrane allows sodium (Na+) to flow inside the membrane • The exchange of ions initiates an action potential in the neuron ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  44. 44. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com ‹#›
  45. 45. THE ACTION POTENTIAL • If the action potential (nerve impulse) starts, it is propagated over the entire axon • Potassium ions rush out of the neuron after sodium ions rush in, which repolarizes the membrane • The sodium-potassium pump restores the original configuration – This action requires ATP ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  46. 46. NERVE IMPULSE PROPAGATION • The impulse continues to move toward the cell body • Impulses travel faster when fibers have a myelin sheath ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  47. 47. CONTINUATION OF THE NERVE IMPULSE BETWEEN NEURONS • Impulses are able to cross the synapse to another nerve – Neurotransmitter is released from a nerve’s axon terminal – The dendrite of the next neuron has receptors that are stimulated by the neurotransmitter – An action potential is started in the dendrite ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  48. 48. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 48 HOW NEURONS COMMUNICATE AT SYNAPSES
  49. 49. THE REFLEX ARC • Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli • Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  50. 50. SIMPLE REFLEX ARC ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  51. 51. TYPES OF REFLEXES AND REGULATION • Autonomic reflexes – Smooth muscle regulation – Heart and blood pressure regulation – Regulation of glands – Digestive system regulation • Somatic reflexes – Activation of skeletal muscles ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 51
  52. 52. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) • CNS develops from the embryonic neural tube – The neural tube becomes the brain and spinal cord – The opening of the neural tube becomes the ventricles • Four chambers within the brain • Filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  53. 53. REGIONS OF THE BRAIN • • • • Cerebral hemispheres Diencephalon Brain stem Cerebellum ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  54. 54. Figure 8.22 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  55. 55. CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES (CEREBRUM) • Paired (left and right) superior parts of the brain • Include more than half of the brain mass • The surface is made of ridges (gyri) and grooves (sulci) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  56. 56. LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM • Fissures (deep grooves) divide the cerebrum into lobes • Surface lobes of the cerebrum – Frontal lobe – Parietal lobe – Occipital lobe – Temporal lobe ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  57. 57. Figure 8.25b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  58. 58. LOBES OF THE CEREBRUM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  59. 59. SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Somatic sensory area – receives impulses from the body’s sensory receptors • Primary motor area – sends impulses to skeletal muscles • Broca’s area – involved in our ability to speak ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  60. 60. SENSORY AND MOTOR AREAS OF THE CEREBRAL CORTEX ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 60
  61. 61. SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM • Cerebral areas involved in special senses – Gustatory area (taste) – Visual area – Auditory area – Olfactory area • Interpretation areas of the cerebrum – Speech/language region – Language comprehension region – General interpretation area ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  62. 62. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 62 SPECIALIZED AREAS OF THE CEREBRUM
  63. 63. Figure 8.28 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 63
  64. 64. LAYERS OF THE CEREBRUM • Gray matter – Outer layer – Composed mostly of neuron cell bodies • White matter – Fiber tracts inside the gray matter – Example: corpus callosum connects hemispheres • Basal nuclei – internal islands of gray matter ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  65. 65. DIENCEPHALON • Sits on top of the brain stem • Enclosed by the cerebral hemispheres • Made of three parts – Epithalamus – Thalamus – Hypothalamus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
  66. 66. Figure 8.23a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 66
  67. 67. Figure 8.23 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 67
  68. 68. Figure 8.23b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 68
  69. 69. DIENCEPHALON ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 69
  70. 70. Figure 8.24a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 70
  71. 71. EPITHALAMUS • Forms the roof of the third ventricle • Houses the pineal body (an endocrine gland) • Includes the choroid plexus – forms cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 71
  72. 72. THALAMUS • Surrounds the third ventricle • The relay station for sensory impulses • Transfers impulses to the correct part of the cortex for localization and interpretation ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 72
  73. 73. HYPOTHALAMUS • Under the thalamus • Important autonomic nervous system center – Helps regulate body temperature – Controls water balance – Regulates metabolism • An important part of the limbic system (emotions) • The pituitary gland is attached to the hypothalamus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 73
  74. 74. Figure 8.24 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 74
  75. 75. Figure 8.24b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 75
  76. 76. BRAIN STEM • Attaches to the spinal cord • Parts of the brain stem – Midbrain – Pons – Medulla oblongata ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 76
  77. 77. BRAIN STEM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 77
  78. 78. MIDBRAIN • Mostly composed of tracts of nerve fibers • Has two bulging fiber tracts – cerebral peduncles • Has four rounded protrusions – corpora quadrigemina – Reflex centers for vision and hearing ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 78
  79. 79. PONS • The bulging center part of the brain stem • Mostly composed of fiber tracts • Includes nuclei involved in the control of breathing ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 79
  80. 80. MEDULLA OBLONGATA • • • • The lowest part of the brain stem Merges into the spinal cord Includes important fiber tracts Contains important control centers – Heart rate control – Blood pressure regulation – Breathing – Swallowing – Vomiting ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 80
  81. 81. RETICULAR FORMATION • Diffuse mass of gray matter along the brain stem • Involved in motor control of visceral organs • Reticular activating system plays a role in awake/sleep cycles and consciousness ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 81
  82. 82. RETICULAR FORMATION ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 82
  83. 83. CEREBELLUM • Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces • Provides involuntary coordination of body movements ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 83
  84. 84. CEREBELLUM ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 84
  85. 85. PROTECTION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Scalp and skin • Skull and vertebral column • Cerebrospinal fluid • Blood brain barrier • Meninges ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 85
  86. 86. MENINGES • Dura mater • Arachnoid layer – Double-layered external covering • Periosteum – attached to surface of the skull • Meningeal layer – outer covering of the brain – Folds inward in several areas ANATOMY – Middle layer – Web-like • Pia mater – Internal layer – Clings to the surface of the brain h_noveno@hotmail.com 86
  87. 87. CEREBROSPINAL FLUID • • • • Similar to blood plasma composition Formed by the choroid plexus Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 87
  88. 88. VENTRICLES AND LOCATION OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 88
  89. 89. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 89 VENTRICLES AND LOCATION OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
  90. 90. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER • Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body • Excludes many potentially harmful substances • Useless against some substances – Fats and fat soluble molecules – Respiratory gases – Alcohol – Nicotine – Anesthesia ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 90
  91. 91. SPINAL CORD • Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12 • Below T12 is the cauda equina (a collection of spinal nerves) • Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 91
  92. 92. Figure 8.21 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 92
  93. 93. SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 93
  94. 94. SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies – Dorsal (posterior) horns – Anterior (ventral) horns ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 94
  95. 95. SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Exterior white mater – conduction tracts ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 95
  96. 96. SPINAL CORD ANATOMY • Meninges cover the spinal cord • Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae – Dorsal root • Associated with the dorsal root ganglia – collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system – Ventral root ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 96
  97. 97. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 97
  98. 98. Figure 8.17b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 98
  99. 99. Figure 8.17 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 99
  100. 100. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM • Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system • Nerve: bundle of neuron fibers • Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 100
  101. 101. Figure 8.18a ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 101
  102. 102. Figure 8.18b ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 102
  103. 103. Figure 8.20 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 103
  104. 104. Figure 8.27 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 104
  105. 105. Figure 8.30 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 105
  106. 106. STRUCTURE OF A NERVE • Endoneurium surrounds each fiber • Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium • Fascicles are bound together by epineurium ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 106
  107. 107. CLASSIFICATION OF NERVES • Mixed nerves – both sensory and motor fibers • Afferent (sensory) nerves – carry impulses toward the CNS • Efferent (motor) nerves – carry impulses away from the CNS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 107
  108. 108. CRANIAL NERVES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 108
  109. 109. I Olfactory nerve – sensory for smell II Optic nerve – sensory for vision III Oculomotor nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles IV Trochlear – motor fiber to eye muscles V Trigeminal nerve – sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles VI Abducens nerve – motor fibers to eye muscles ANATOMY VII Facial nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve – sensory for balance and hearing IX Glossopharyngeal nerve – sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx X Vagus nerves – sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera XI Accessory nerve – motor fibers to neck and upper back XII Hypoglossal nerve – motor fibers to tongue h_noveno@hotmail.com 109
  110. 110. Figure 8.38 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 110
  111. 111. SPINAL NERVES • There is a pair of spinal nerves at the level of each vertebrae for a total of 31 pairs • Spinal nerves are formed by the combination of the ventral and dorsal roots of the spinal cord • Spinal nerves are named for the region from which they arise ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 111
  112. 112. SPINAL NERVES ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 112
  113. 113. ANATOMY OF SPINAL NERVES • Spinal nerves divide soon after leaving the spinal cord – Dorsal rami – serve the skin and muscles of the posterior trunk – Ventral rami – forms a complex of networks (plexus) for the anterior ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 113
  114. 114. EXAMPLES OF NERVE DISTRIBUTION ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 114
  115. 115. AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM • The involuntary branch of the nervous system • Consists of only motor nerves • Divided into two divisions – Sympathetic division – Parasympathetic division ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 115
  116. 116. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS • Nerves – Somatic – one motor neuron – Autonomic – preganglionic and postganglionic nerves • Effector organs – Somatic – skeletal muscle – Autonomic – smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands • Nerurotransmitters – Somatic – always use acetylcholine – Autonomic – use acetylcholine, epinephrine, or norepinephrine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 116
  117. 117. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS Somatic Nerve One motor neuron Effector Organs Skeletal muscles Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com Autonomic Preganglionic & postganglionic nerves Cardiac muscles Smooth muscles Glands Acetylcholine Epinephrine Norepinephrine 117
  118. 118. COMPARISON OF SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 118
  119. 119. ANATOMY OF THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from T1 through L2 • Ganglia are at the sympathetic trunk (near the spinal cord) • Short pre-ganglionic neuron and long postganglionic neuron transmit impulse from CNS to the effector • Norepinephrine and epinephrine are neurotransmitters to the effector organs ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 119
  120. 120. SYMPATHETIC PATHWAYS ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 120
  121. 121. ANATOMY OF THE PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION • Originates from the brain stem and S1 through S4 • Terminal ganglia are at the effector organs • Always uses acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 121
  122. 122. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 122 ANATOMY OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
  123. 123. Figure 8.39 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 123
  124. 124. DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM • The nervous system is formed during the first month of embryonic development • Any maternal infection can have extremely harmful effects • The hypothalamus is one of the last areas of the brain to develop • No more neurons are formed after birth, but growth and maturation continues for several years • The brain reaches maximum weight as a young adult ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 125
  125. 125. UNIT 6 NERVOUS SYSTEM HILARIO CRUZADA NOVENO JR., MAN, MSN, RN Lecturer Thank You! ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 126

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