Unit 5 Muscular System

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Unit 5 Muscular System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. Unit 4 The Muscular System Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr. Lecturer [ ]
  3. 3. The Muscular System • Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement ( ) • Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) – Skeletal muscle ( – Cardiac muscle ( – Smooth muscle ( ) ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  4. 4. Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • Muscle cells are elongated ( ) (muscle cell = muscle fiber) • Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments ( microfilaments) h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  6. 6. Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • All muscles share some terminology ( ) – Prefix myo refers to muscle ( ) – Prefix mys refers to muscle (MYS ) – Prefix sarco refers to flesh ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 6
  7. 7. Skeletal Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Most are attached by tendons to bones ( ) • Cells are multinucleate ( ) • Striated ( ) – have visible banding ( ) • Voluntary ( ) – subject to conscious control ( ) • Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  8. 8. • Fascia ( ) – on the outside of the epimysium ( ) Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Epimysium ( ) – covers the entire skeletal muscle ( ) • Perimysium ( )– around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers ( ) • Endomysium ( )– around single muscle fiber ( -) h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  9. 9. Skeletal Muscle Attachments [ ] • Epimysium blends into a • Sites of muscle connective tissue attachment attachment ( ( – Bones ( ) ) – Cartilages ( – Tendon ( ) – cord-like structure ( ) – Aponeuroses ( )– sheet-like structure ( ) ) ) – Connective tissue coverings ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  10. 10. Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] • • • • Has no striations ( ) Spindle-shaped cells ( ) Single nucleus ( ) Involuntary ( ) – no conscious control ( ) • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  11. 11. Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  12. 12. Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Has striations ( ) • Usually has a single nucleus ( ) • Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc ( ) • Involuntary ( ) • Found only in the heart ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 12
  13. 13. Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  14. 14. h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTIC SKELETAL CARDIAC SMOOTH Special Features None Intercalated discs Cell-cell attachment Nucleus Multinucleate Striation Mononucleate Yes No Cell shape Long, cylinrical Movement Voluntary Involuntary Innervation Somatic NS Autonomic NS Location Attached to bone Function Branched Spindle Heart Move bodyh_noveno@hotmail.com contraction Cardiac Walls of hollow organs Compression of organs, ducts,15 ect
  16. 16. Function of Muscles [ ] • Produce movement ( ) • Maintain posture ( ) • Stabilize joints ( • Generate heat ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
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  26. 26. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Cells are multinucleate ( Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) 27
  27. 27. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcolemma ( Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( ( ) – specialized plasma membrane ( ) ) – specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  28. 28. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Myofibril Bundles of myofilaments ( myofilaments) Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands ( ) I band ( I) = light band ( ) A band ( ) = dark band ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcomere ( muscle fiber ( ): Contractile unit of a ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thick filaments ( ) = myosin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein myosin ( ) Has ATPase enzymes ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thin filaments ( ) = actin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein actin ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Myosin filaments have heads ( ): extensions, or cross bridges ( ) • Myosin and actin overlap somewhat ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  33. 33. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  34. 34. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin filaments ( ) • Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( for storage of calcium ( h_noveno@hotmail.com )– ) 35
  35. 35. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  36. 36. Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Irritability ( ) – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus ( ) • Contractility ( ) – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract ( ) • Motor unit ( ) – One neuron ( ) – Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  38. 38. Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] • Neurotransmitter ( ) – chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse ( ) – The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine ( ) • Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma ( ) • Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium (Na+) ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  39. 39. Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. Neuromuscular Junction Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  41. 41. Types of Muscle Contractions [ ] Isotonic contractions ( ) • Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during contractions (Myofilaments ) Isometric contractions ( ) • Tension in the muscles increases ( ) • The muscle is unable to shorten ( ) • The muscle shortens ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. Muscle Tone [ ] • Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle ( ) • Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone ( ) • The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  45. 45. Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Muscles are attached to at least two points ( ) – Origin ( ) – attachment to a moveable bone ( ) – Insertion ( ) – attachment to an immovable bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  46. 46. Effects of Exercise on Muscle [ ] • Results of increased muscle use ( ) – Increase in muscle size ( – Increase in muscle strength ( – Increase in muscle efficiency ( – Muscle becomes more fatigue resistant ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) ) 47
  47. 47. Types of Muscles [ ] • Prime mover ( ) – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement ( ) • Antagonist ( ) – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover ( ) • Synergist ( ) – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation ( ) • Fixator – stabilizes the origin of a prime mover ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  48. 48. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Direction of muscle fibers ( – Example ( ] ) ): rectus (straight) [ – Rectus abdominis – Transversus abdominis – Internal oblique – External oblique h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  49. 49. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Relative size of the muscle ( ) – Example ( (largest) [ ): maximus ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  50. 50. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): many muscles are named for bones (e.g., temporalis) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 51
  51. 51. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Number of origins ( ) – Example ( ): triceps (three heads) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  52. 52. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscles origin and insertion ( ) – Example ( ): sterno (on the sternum) h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  53. 53. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Shape of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): deltoid (triangular) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  54. 54. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Action of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  55. 55. Head and Neck Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  56. 56. Trunk Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  57. 57. Deep Trunk and Arm Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  58. 58. Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  59. 59. Muscles of the Lower Leg [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 60
  60. 60. Superficial Muscles: Anterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  61. 61. Superficial Muscles: Posterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 62
  62. 62. Types of Ordinary Body Movements [ ] • • • • • Flexion ( ) Extension ( ) Rotation ( ) Abduction ( ) Circumduction ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 63
  63. 63. MUSCULAR LABORATORY h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  64. 64. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
  65. 65. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 66
  66. 66. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 67
  67. 67. Special Movements [ ] • • • • • • • Dorsiflexion ( ) Plantar flexion ( ) Inversion ( ) Eversion ( ) Supination ( ) Pronation ( ) Opposition ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 68

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