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Anatom...
Unit 4
The Muscular System
Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr.
Lecturer [

]
The Muscular System
• Muscles are responsible for all types of body
movement (
)
• Three basic muscle types are found in t...
Three basic muscle types
are found in the body (

)

h_noveno@hotmail.com

4
Characteristics of Muscles
[
]
• Muscle cells are elongated (
)
(muscle cell = muscle fiber)
• Contraction of muscles is d...
Characteristics of Muscles
[
]
• All muscles share some terminology (
)
– Prefix myo refers to muscle (
)
– Prefix mys ref...
Skeletal Muscle Characteristics
[
]
• Most are attached by tendons to bones
(
)
• Cells are multinucleate (
)
• Striated (...
• Fascia (
) – on the
outside of the epimysium
(
)

Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle

[

]

• Epimysium ( ) ...
Skeletal Muscle Attachments
[
]
• Epimysium blends into a • Sites of muscle
connective tissue
attachment
attachment
(
(
– ...
Smooth Muscle Characteristics
[
]
•
•
•
•

Has no striations (
)
Spindle-shaped cells (
)
Single nucleus (
)
Involuntary (...
Smooth Muscle Characteristics
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

11
Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
[
]
• Has striations (
)
• Usually has a single nucleus (
)
• Joined to another muscle cell...
Cardiac Muscle Characteristics
[
]

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13
h_noveno@hotmail.com

14
CHARACTERISTIC

SKELETAL

CARDIAC

SMOOTH

Special Features

None

Intercalated discs

Cell-cell attachment

Nucleus

Mult...
Function of Muscles
[
]
• Produce movement (

)

• Maintain posture (

)

• Stabilize joints (

• Generate heat (

)

)
h_...
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18
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19
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20
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21
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22
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23
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24
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25
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26
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]

Cells are multinucleate (
Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma (
h_noveno@ho...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]

Sarcolemma (
Sarcoplasmic reticulum (
(

) – specialized plasma membrane (
)
)...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
Myofibril
Bundles of myofilaments (
myofilaments)
Myofibrils are aligned to giv...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
Sarcomere (
muscle fiber (

): Contractile unit of a
)

h_noveno@hotmail.com

3...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
Organization of the sarcomere (
)
Thick filaments (
) = myosin filaments
(
)
Co...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
Organization of the sarcomere (
)
Thin filaments (
) = actin filaments
(
)
Comp...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
• Myosin filaments have heads
(
): extensions, or cross
bridges (
)

• Myosin a...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

34
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]
• At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin
filaments (
)

• Sarcoplasmic ...
Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

36
Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity
[
]
• Irritability (
) – ability to receive and
respond to a stimulus (
)

• Contra...
Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity
[
]
• Skeletal muscles must be
stimulated by a nerve to
contract (
)
• Motor unit (...
Nerve Stimulus to Muscles
[
]
• Neurotransmitter (
) – chemical released by
nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse (
)
– The ...
Nerve Stimulus to Muscles
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

40
Neuromuscular Junction

Skeletal Muscle Contraction
Types of Muscle Contractions
[
]
Isotonic contractions
(
)
• Myofilaments are able to
slide past each other during
contrac...
Muscle Tone [

]

• Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed
muscle (
)
• Different fibers contract at different times...
Muscles and Body Movements
[
]
• Movement is attained due to a muscle moving
an attached bone (
)

h_noveno@hotmail.com

4...
Skeletal Muscle
[

]
h_noveno@hotmail.com

45
Muscles and Body Movements
[
]
• Muscles are attached to at least two points
(
)
– Origin (
) – attachment to a moveable b...
Effects of Exercise on Muscle
[
]
• Results of increased muscle use
(
)
– Increase in muscle size (
– Increase in muscle s...
Types of Muscles
[
]
• Prime mover (
) – muscle with the major
responsibility for a certain movement (
)
• Antagonist (
) ...
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Direction of muscle fibers (
– Example (
]

)

): rectus (straight) [

– Rectus abdominis...
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Relative size of the
muscle (
)
– Example (
(largest)
[

): maximus

]

h_noveno@hotmail....
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Location of the muscle
(
)
– Example ( ): many
muscles are named for
bones (e.g., tempora...
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Number of origins
(
)
– Example ( ): triceps
(three heads) [
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

52
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Location of the muscles
origin and insertion
(
)
– Example ( ): sterno
(on the sternum)

...
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Shape of the muscle
(
)
– Example ( ): deltoid
(triangular)
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

54
Naming of Skeletal Muscles
[
]
• Action of the muscle
(
)
– Example ( ): flexor and
extensor (flexes or extends a
bone)
[
...
Head and Neck Muscles
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

56
Trunk Muscles
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

57
Deep Trunk and Arm Muscles
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

58
Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh

[

]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

59
Muscles of the Lower Leg

[

]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

60
Superficial Muscles: Anterior
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

61
Superficial Muscles: Posterior

[

]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

62
Types of Ordinary Body Movements
[
]
•
•
•
•
•

Flexion (
)
Extension (
)
Rotation (
)
Abduction (
)
Circumduction (

)

h...
MUSCULAR LABORATORY

h_noveno@hotmail.com

64
Body Movements
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

65
Body Movements
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

66
Body Movements
[
]

h_noveno@hotmail.com

67
Special Movements
[
]
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Dorsiflexion (
)
Plantar flexion (
)
Inversion (
)
Eversion (
)
Supination (
)
Pronat...
Unit 5 Muscular System
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Unit 5 Muscular System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. Unit 4 The Muscular System Hilario Cruzada Noveno Jr. Lecturer [ ]
  3. 3. The Muscular System • Muscles are responsible for all types of body movement ( ) • Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) – Skeletal muscle ( – Cardiac muscle ( – Smooth muscle ( ) ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  4. 4. Three basic muscle types are found in the body ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • Muscle cells are elongated ( ) (muscle cell = muscle fiber) • Contraction of muscles is due to the movement of microfilaments ( microfilaments) h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  6. 6. Characteristics of Muscles [ ] • All muscles share some terminology ( ) – Prefix myo refers to muscle ( ) – Prefix mys refers to muscle (MYS ) – Prefix sarco refers to flesh ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 6
  7. 7. Skeletal Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Most are attached by tendons to bones ( ) • Cells are multinucleate ( ) • Striated ( ) – have visible banding ( ) • Voluntary ( ) – subject to conscious control ( ) • Cells are surrounded and bundled by connective tissue ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  8. 8. • Fascia ( ) – on the outside of the epimysium ( ) Connective Tissue Wrappings of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Epimysium ( ) – covers the entire skeletal muscle ( ) • Perimysium ( )– around a fascicle (bundle) of fibers ( ) • Endomysium ( )– around single muscle fiber ( -) h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  9. 9. Skeletal Muscle Attachments [ ] • Epimysium blends into a • Sites of muscle connective tissue attachment attachment ( ( – Bones ( ) ) – Cartilages ( – Tendon ( ) – cord-like structure ( ) – Aponeuroses ( )– sheet-like structure ( ) ) ) – Connective tissue coverings ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  10. 10. Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] • • • • Has no striations ( ) Spindle-shaped cells ( ) Single nucleus ( ) Involuntary ( ) – no conscious control ( ) • Found mainly in the walls of hollow organs ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  11. 11. Smooth Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  12. 12. Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] • Has striations ( ) • Usually has a single nucleus ( ) • Joined to another muscle cell at an intercalated disc ( ) • Involuntary ( ) • Found only in the heart ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) 12
  13. 13. Cardiac Muscle Characteristics [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  14. 14. h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  15. 15. CHARACTERISTIC SKELETAL CARDIAC SMOOTH Special Features None Intercalated discs Cell-cell attachment Nucleus Multinucleate Striation Mononucleate Yes No Cell shape Long, cylinrical Movement Voluntary Involuntary Innervation Somatic NS Autonomic NS Location Attached to bone Function Branched Spindle Heart Move bodyh_noveno@hotmail.com contraction Cardiac Walls of hollow organs Compression of organs, ducts,15 ect
  16. 16. Function of Muscles [ ] • Produce movement ( ) • Maintain posture ( ) • Stabilize joints ( • Generate heat ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  17. 17. h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  25. 25. h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  26. 26. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Cells are multinucleate ( Nuclei are just beneath the sarcolemma ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) 27
  27. 27. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcolemma ( Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( ( ) – specialized plasma membrane ( ) ) – specialized smooth endoplasmic reticulum ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  28. 28. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Myofibril Bundles of myofilaments ( myofilaments) Myofibrils are aligned to give distinct bands ( ) I band ( I) = light band ( ) A band ( ) = dark band ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Sarcomere ( muscle fiber ( ): Contractile unit of a ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thick filaments ( ) = myosin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein myosin ( ) Has ATPase enzymes ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] Organization of the sarcomere ( ) Thin filaments ( ) = actin filaments ( ) Composed of the protein actin ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • Myosin filaments have heads ( ): extensions, or cross bridges ( ) • Myosin and actin overlap somewhat ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  33. 33. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  34. 34. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] • At rest, there is a bare zone that lacks actin filaments ( ) • Sarcoplasmic reticulum ( for storage of calcium ( h_noveno@hotmail.com )– ) 35
  35. 35. Microscopic Anatomy of Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  36. 36. Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Irritability ( ) – ability to receive and respond to a stimulus ( ) • Contractility ( ) – ability to shorten when an adequate stimulus is received ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. Properties of Skeletal Muscle Activity [ ] • Skeletal muscles must be stimulated by a nerve to contract ( ) • Motor unit ( ) – One neuron ( ) – Muscle cells stimulated by that neuron ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  38. 38. Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] • Neurotransmitter ( ) – chemical released by nerve upon arrival of nerve impulse ( ) – The neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle is acetylcholine ( ) • Neurotransmitter attaches to receptors on the sarcolemma ( ) • Sarcolemma becomes permeable to sodium (Na+) ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  39. 39. Nerve Stimulus to Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. Neuromuscular Junction Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  41. 41. Types of Muscle Contractions [ ] Isotonic contractions ( ) • Myofilaments are able to slide past each other during contractions (Myofilaments ) Isometric contractions ( ) • Tension in the muscles increases ( ) • The muscle is unable to shorten ( ) • The muscle shortens ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. Muscle Tone [ ] • Some fibers are contracted even in a relaxed muscle ( ) • Different fibers contract at different times to provide muscle tone ( ) • The process of stimulating various fibers is under involuntary control ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Movement is attained due to a muscle moving an attached bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. Skeletal Muscle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  45. 45. Muscles and Body Movements [ ] • Muscles are attached to at least two points ( ) – Origin ( ) – attachment to a moveable bone ( ) – Insertion ( ) – attachment to an immovable bone ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  46. 46. Effects of Exercise on Muscle [ ] • Results of increased muscle use ( ) – Increase in muscle size ( – Increase in muscle strength ( – Increase in muscle efficiency ( – Muscle becomes more fatigue resistant ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ) ) ) 47
  47. 47. Types of Muscles [ ] • Prime mover ( ) – muscle with the major responsibility for a certain movement ( ) • Antagonist ( ) – muscle that opposes or reverses a prime mover ( ) • Synergist ( ) – muscle that aids a prime mover in a movement and helps prevent rotation ( ) • Fixator – stabilizes the origin of a prime mover ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  48. 48. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Direction of muscle fibers ( – Example ( ] ) ): rectus (straight) [ – Rectus abdominis – Transversus abdominis – Internal oblique – External oblique h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  49. 49. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Relative size of the muscle ( ) – Example ( (largest) [ ): maximus ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  50. 50. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): many muscles are named for bones (e.g., temporalis) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 51
  51. 51. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Number of origins ( ) – Example ( ): triceps (three heads) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  52. 52. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Location of the muscles origin and insertion ( ) – Example ( ): sterno (on the sternum) h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  53. 53. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Shape of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): deltoid (triangular) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  54. 54. Naming of Skeletal Muscles [ ] • Action of the muscle ( ) – Example ( ): flexor and extensor (flexes or extends a bone) [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  55. 55. Head and Neck Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  56. 56. Trunk Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  57. 57. Deep Trunk and Arm Muscles [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  58. 58. Muscles of the Pelvis, Hip, and Thigh [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  59. 59. Muscles of the Lower Leg [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 60
  60. 60. Superficial Muscles: Anterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  61. 61. Superficial Muscles: Posterior [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 62
  62. 62. Types of Ordinary Body Movements [ ] • • • • • Flexion ( ) Extension ( ) Rotation ( ) Abduction ( ) Circumduction ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 63
  63. 63. MUSCULAR LABORATORY h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  64. 64. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
  65. 65. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 66
  66. 66. Body Movements [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 67
  67. 67. Special Movements [ ] • • • • • • • Dorsiflexion ( ) Plantar flexion ( ) Inversion ( ) Eversion ( ) Supination ( ) Pronation ( ) Opposition ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 68
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