Unit 4 Skeletal System

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Unit 4 Skeletal System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS • Support of the body • Protection of soft organs • Movement due to attached skeletal muscles • Storage of minerals and fats • Blood cell formation h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  3. 3. BONES OF THE HUMAN BODY [ ] • The adult skeleton has 206 bones • Two basic types of bone tissue • – Compact bone • Homogeneous – Spongy bone • Small needle-like pieces of bone • Many open spaces h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  4. 4. BONES OF THE HUMAN BODY [ ] Spongy bone is also called cancellous bone h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BONES ON THE BASIS OF SHAPE [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  6. 6. Long bones • Typically longer than wide • Have a shaft with heads at both ends • Contain mostly compact bone – Examples: Femur, humerus h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  7. 7. Long bones Femur Humerus h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  8. 8. Short bones • Generally cube-shape • Contain mostly spongy bone – Examples: Carpals, tarsals Carpals tarsals h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  9. 9. Short bones Carpals Tarsals h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  10. 10. Flat bones • Thin and flattened • Usually curved • Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone – Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum, pelvis, scapula h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  11. 11. Flat bones Skull Ribs & Sternum h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  12. 12. Irregular bones • Irregular shape • Do not fit into other bone classification categories – Example: Vertebrae and hip h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. Irregular bones Vertebrae Hip h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  14. 14. Classification of Bones on the Basis of Shape [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
  15. 15. • Diaphysis – Shaft – Composed of compact bone • Epiphysis – Ends of the bone – Composed mostly of spongy (cancellous) bone h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  16. 16. Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  17. 17. Structures of a Long Bone Periosteum Outside covering of the diaphysis Fibrous connective tissue membrane Sharpey’s fibers Secure periosteum to underlying bone Arteries Supply bone cells with nutrients h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. Structures of a Long Bone [ ] •Articular cartilage ( ) •Covers the external surface of the epiphyses ( ) •Made of hyaline cartilage ( ) •Decreases friction at joint surfaces ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. Bone Markings • Surface features of bones • Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments • Passages for nerves and blood vessels • Categories of bone markings – Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface – Depressions or cavities – indentations h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone • Osteon (Haversian System) – A unit of bone • Central (Haversian) canal – Opening in the center of an osteon – Carries blood vessels and nerves • Perforating (Volkman’s) canal – Canal perpendicular to the central canal – Carries blood vessels and nerves h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. • Osteon ( ) – • – – osteon • – h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] • Lacunae – Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes) – Arranged in concentric rings • Lamellae – Rings around the central canal – Sites of lacunae h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] • – (osteocytes) – • – – h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  25. 25. Microscopic Anatomy of Bone [ ] • Canaliculi ( ) – Tiny canals ( ) – Radiate from the central canal to lacunae ( ) – Form a transport system ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  26. 26. Changes in the Human Skeleton [ ] • In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage (fetal skeleton) • During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone • Cartilage remains in isolated areas – Bridge of the nose – Parts of ribs – Joints • • • h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  27. 27. Bone Growth [ ] • Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood • – New cartilage is continuously formed – Older cartilage becomes ossified • • Cartilage is broken down • Bone replaces cartilage h_noveno@hotmail.com • • • 28
  28. 28. Bone Growth • Bones are remodeled and lengthened until growth stops • • – Bones change shape somewhat – Bones grow in width h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. Long Bone Formation and Growth [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. Long Bone Formation and Growth [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. Types of Bone Cells [ ] • Osteocytes • Osteocytes • Osteoblasts • • Osteoclasts • – Mature bone cells – Bone-forming cells – Bone-destroying cells – Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium • Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts • h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. PARTS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM [ ] • • • • Bones (skeleton) [ Joints ( ) Cartilages ( ) Ligaments ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 33
  33. 33. TWO DIVISIONS [ Axial skeleton ( Appendicular skeleton ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ] ) ) 34
  34. 34. TWO DIVISIONS h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
  35. 35. The Axial Skeleton [ ] • Forms the longitudinal part of the body ( ) • Divided into three parts ( ) – Skull ( ) – Vertebral column ( – Bony thorax ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  36. 36. The Axial Skeleton [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. The Skull [ • Two sets of bones ( – Cranium ( ) – Facial bones ( ] ) ) • Bones are joined by sutures ( ) • Only the mandible is attached by a freely movable joint ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  38. 38. The Skull [ h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 39
  39. 39. Bones of the Skull [ h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 40
  40. 40. Bones of the Skull [ h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 41
  41. 41. Human Skull, Inferior View [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. The Fetal Skull [ ] Fontanelles ( )– fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones ( ): Allow the brain to grow ( ) Convert to bone within 24 months after birth ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. The Vertebral (Spinal) Column [ ] • Vertebrae separated by intervertebral discs ( ) • The spine has a normal curvature ( ) • Each vertebrae is given a name according to its location ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. Structure of a Typical Vertebrae [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  45. 45. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  46. 46. Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  47. 47. The Bony Thorax [ ] Forms a cage to protect major organs h_noveno@hotmail.com 48
  48. 48. The Bony Thorax [ ] Made-up of three parts: Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae h_noveno@hotmail.com 49
  49. 49. Thorax h_noveno@hotmail.com 50
  50. 50. TWO DIVISIONS [ Axial skeleton ( Appendicular skeleton ( h_noveno@hotmail.com ] ) ) 51
  51. 51. TWO DIVISIONS h_noveno@hotmail.com 52
  52. 52. The Appendicular Skeleton [ ] • Limbs (appendages) [ ] • Pectoral girdle ( • Pelvic girdle ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 53
  53. 53. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ] The arm is formed by a single bone ( ): Humerus ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 54
  54. 54. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ] The forearm has two bones ( ) 1. Ulna ( ) 2. Radius ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 55
  55. 55. Bones of the Upper Limb [ ] • The hand ( – Carpals – wrist ( ) – Metacarpals ( palm ( ) – Phalanges ( fingers ( ) ) )– )– h_noveno@hotmail.com 56
  56. 56. The Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle [ ] • Composed of two bones – Clavicle – collarbone – Scapula – shoulder blade • Allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement h_noveno@hotmail.com 57
  57. 57. Bones of the Shoulder Girdle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 58
  58. 58. Bones of the Shoulder Girdle [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 59
  59. 59. Upper Limb h_noveno@hotmail.com 60
  60. 60. Bones of the Pelvic Girdle [ ] • Hip bones ( ) • Composed of 3 pair of fused bones ( ) – Ilium ( ) – Ischium ( ) – Pubic bone ( ) • The total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis ( ) • Protects several organs ( ) – Reproductive organs ( ) – Urinary bladder ( ) – Part of the large intestine ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 61
  61. 61. The Pelvis ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 62
  62. 62. The Pelvis[ ]: Right Coxal Bone [ h_noveno@hotmail.com ] 63
  63. 63. Gender Differences of the Pelvis [ ] h_noveno@hotmail.com 64
  64. 64. Bones of the Lower Limbs [ ] The thigh has one bone ( ): Femur ( thigh bone ( )– ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 65
  65. 65. Bones of the Lower Limbs [ The leg has two bones ( ): Tibia ( Fibula ( ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 66
  66. 66. Bones of the Lower Limbs [ ] The foot ( ) Tarsus ( )– ankle ( ) Metatarsals ( ) – sole ( ) Phalanges ( ) – toes ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 67
  67. 67. Arches of the Foot [ ] • Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches ( ) – Two longitudinal ( ) – One transverse ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 68
  68. 68. LABORATORY DISCUSSION h_noveno@hotmail.com 69
  69. 69. Joints [ ] • Articulations of bones ( ) • Functions of joints ( – Hold bones together ( – Allow for mobility ( ) ) ) • Ways joints are classified ( – Functionally ( – Structurally ( ) ) ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 70
  70. 70. Functional Classification of Joints [ ] • Synarthroses ( ( ) – immovable joints ) • Amphiarthroses – slightly moveable joints ( ) • Diarthroses ( joints ) – freely moveable h_noveno@hotmail.com 71
  71. 71. Structural Classification of Joints • Fibrous joints • – Generally immovable – Synarthroses • Cartilaginous joints – Immovable or slightly moveable – Amphiarthroses • Synovial joints • • – Freely moveable – Diarthroses h_noveno@hotmail.com 72
  72. 72. Fibrous Joints • Bones united by fibrous tissue ( ) • Examples ( ) – Sutures ( ) – Syndesmoses • Allows more movement than sutures ( ) • Example: distal end of tibia and fibula ( ) h_noveno@hotmail.com 73
  73. 73. Cartilaginous Joints • Bones connected by cartilage Examples – Pubic symphysis – Intervertebral joints h_noveno@hotmail.com 74
  74. 74. Features of Synovial Joints • Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones • Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule • Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid • Ligaments reinforce the joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 75
  75. 75. Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint • Bursae – flattened fibrous sacs – Lined with synovial membranes – Filled with synovial fluid – Not actually part of the joint • Tendon sheath – Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon h_noveno@hotmail.com 76
  76. 76. The Synovial Joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 77
  77. 77. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape h_noveno@hotmail.com 78
  78. 78. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape h_noveno@hotmail.com 79
  79. 79. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Plane joints h_noveno@hotmail.com 80
  80. 80. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Gliding joints – The articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved – Allow sliding or back-and-forth motion and twisting movements – Joints within wrist and ankle, as well as those between the articular processes of adjacent vertebrae – Sacroiliac joints and the joints formed by ribs 2 though 7 connecting h_noveno@hotmail.com 81
  81. 81. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Hinge joint – The convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another – Elbow and the joints of the phalanges – Resembles the hinge of a door in that it permits movement in one plane only h_noveno@hotmail.com 82
  82. 82. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Hinge joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 83
  83. 83. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Pivot joint – The cylindrical surface of one bone rotates within a ring formed of bone and fibrous tissue of a ligament – Movement is limited to rotation around a central axis. – Joint between the proximal ends of the radius and the ulna, where the head of the radius rotates in a ring formed by the radial notch of the ulna and a ligament (annular ligament) – Pivot joint functions in the neck as the heard turns from side to side. – The ring formed by a ligament (transverse ligament) and the anterior arch of the atlas rotates around the dens of the axis h_noveno@hotmail.com 84
  84. 84. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Pivot joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 85
  85. 85. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Condyloid joint – The ovoid condyle of one bone fits into the elliptical cavity of another bone – Joints between the metacarpals (bones of the palm) and phalanges (bones of the fingers and toes) – Movements in different planes – Rotational movement is not possible h_noveno@hotmail.com 86
  86. 86. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Condyloid joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 87
  87. 87. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Saddle joint – Forms between bones whose articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions. – The surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of the other. – Movements mainly in two planes – Joint between the carpal (trapezium) and the metacarpal of the thumb h_noveno@hotmail.com 88
  88. 88. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Saddle joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 89
  89. 89. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Ball & socket joint – Consists of a bone with a globular or slightly eggshaped head that articulates with the cup-shaped cavity of another bone. – Allows a wider range of motion than does any other kind – Permit movements in all planes, as well as rotational movement around a central axis – Hips and shoulders h_noveno@hotmail.com 90
  90. 90. Types of Synovial Joints Based on Shape • Ball & socket joint h_noveno@hotmail.com 91
  91. 91. Kozier-Media-Flash-Joint Movement • ....REFERENCE MATERIALSFUNDA by KozierMediaFlashfuncclassifofjoints.swf h_noveno@hotmail.com 92
  92. 92. Types of Joint Movements • • • • • • • • • Flexion Extension Hyperextension Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Abduction Adduction Rotation Circumduction • • • • • • • • • Supination Pronation Eversion Inversion Protraction Retraction Elevation Depression Opposition h_noveno@hotmail.com 93
  93. 93. Types of Joint Movements • Flexion – Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the lower limb at the knee) h_noveno@hotmail.com 94
  94. 94. Types of Joint Movements • Extension – Straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the lower limb at the knee). h_noveno@hotmail.com 95
  95. 95. Elbow flexion and extension h_noveno@hotmail.com 96
  96. 96. Types of Joint Movements • Hyperextension – Excess extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position) h_noveno@hotmail.com 97
  97. 97. Types of Joint Movements • Dorsiflexion – Bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin (bending the foot upward) h_noveno@hotmail.com 98
  98. 98. Adduction & abduction h_noveno@hotmail.com 99
  99. 99. Types of Joint Movements • Plantar flexion – Bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole (bending the foot downward). h_noveno@hotmail.com 100
  100. 100. Types of Joint Movements • Abduction – Moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with he side of the body) h_noveno@hotmail.com 101
  101. 101. Types of Joint Movements • Adduction – Moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body) h_noveno@hotmail.com 102
  102. 102. Types of Joint Movements • Rotation – Moving a part around an axis (twisting the head from side to side). – Medial rotation involves movement toward the midline, whereas lateral rotation involves movement in the opposite direction. h_noveno@hotmail.com 103
  103. 103. Types of Joint Movements Rotation h_noveno@hotmail.com 104
  104. 104. Types of Joint Movements • Circumduction – Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand) h_noveno@hotmail.com 105
  105. 105. Types of Joint Movements Circumduction h_noveno@hotmail.com 106
  106. 106. Types of Joint Movements • Supination – Turning the hand so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position) h_noveno@hotmail.com 107
  107. 107. Types of Joint Movements • Pronation – Turning the hand so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position) h_noveno@hotmail.com 108
  108. 108. Elbow pronation and supination h_noveno@hotmail.com 109
  109. 109. Types of Joint Movements • Eversion – Turning the foot so the sole faces laterally h_noveno@hotmail.com 110
  110. 110. Types of Joint Movements • Inversion – Turning the foot so the sole faces medially h_noveno@hotmail.com 111
  111. 111. Ankle inversion & eversion h_noveno@hotmail.com 112
  112. 112. Types of Joint Movements • Protraction – Moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward) h_noveno@hotmail.com 113
  113. 113. Types of Joint Movements • Retraction – Moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward) h_noveno@hotmail.com 114
  114. 114. Types of Joint Movements • Elevation – Raising a part (shrugging the shoulders) h_noveno@hotmail.com 115
  115. 115. Types of Joint Movements • Depression – Lowering a part (drooping the shoulders) h_noveno@hotmail.com 116
  116. 116. Types of Joint Movements Opposition h_noveno@hotmail.com 117
  117. 117. Kozier-Media-Flash-Joint Movement • ....REFERENCE MATERIALSFUNDA by KozierMediaFlashmovementofjoints.swf h_noveno@hotmail.com 118
  118. 118. Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System • At birth, the skull bones are incomplete • Bones are joined by fibrous membranes – fontanelles • Fontanelles are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth h_noveno@hotmail.com 119

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