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Organs of the Alimentary Canal

Mouth
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Small intestine
Large intestine
Anus

ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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LAYERS OF ALIMENTARY CANAL ORGANS
• All are part of the autonomic nervous system
• Three separate networks of nerve fibers...
ANATOMY

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Figure 16.4

ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ESOPHAGUS
• Runs from pharynx to stomach through the
diaphragm
• Conducts food by peristalsis
(slow rhythmic squeezing)
• ...
ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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STOMACH ANATOMY
• Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity
• Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter
• Regio...
STOMACH ANATOMY
• Layers of peritoneum attached to the stomach
– Lesser omentum – attaches the liver to the lesser
curvatu...
ANATOMY

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STOMACH FUNCTIONS
•
•
•
•

Acts as a storage tank for food
Site of food breakdown
Chemical breakdown of protein begins
Del...
SPECIALIZED MUCOSA OF THE STOMACH
• Simple columnar epithelium
– Mucous neck cells – produce a sticky alkaline
mucus
– Gas...
ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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SMALL INTESTINE
• The body’s major digestive organ
• Site of nutrient absorption into the blood
• Muscular tube extending ...
SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
• Duodenum
– Attached to the stomach
– Curves around the head of the pancreas

• Jejun...
ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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Villi of the Small Intestine

Fingerlike structures
formed by the
mucosa
Give the small
intestine more
surface area
ANATOM...
Microvilli of the Small Intestine

Small projections of the
plasma membrane
Found on absorptive cells
Structures Involved ...
ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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ANATOMY

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Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System
Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System
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Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System

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Unit 12 Gastrointestinal System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning! 
  2. 2. Organs of the Alimentary Canal Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Anus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 3
  3. 3. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 4
  4. 4. LAYERS OF ALIMENTARY CANAL ORGANS • All are part of the autonomic nervous system • Three separate networks of nerve fibers – Submucosal nerve plexus – Myenteric nerve plexus – Subserous plexus ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 5
  5. 5. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 6
  6. 6. Figure 16.4 ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 7
  7. 7. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 8
  8. 8. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  9. 9. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  10. 10. ESOPHAGUS • Runs from pharynx to stomach through the diaphragm • Conducts food by peristalsis (slow rhythmic squeezing) • Passageway for food only (respiratory system branches off after the pharynx) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  11. 11. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  12. 12. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  14. 14. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
  15. 15. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 16
  16. 16. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 17
  17. 17. STOMACH ANATOMY • Located on the left side of the abdominal cavity • Food enters at the cardioesophageal sphincter • Regions of the stomach – – – – Cardiac region – near the heart Fundus Body Phylorus – funnel-shaped terminal end • Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter • Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa • External regions – Lesser curvature – Greater curvature ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. STOMACH ANATOMY • Layers of peritoneum attached to the stomach – Lesser omentum – attaches the liver to the lesser curvature – Greater omentum – attaches the greater curvature to the posterior body wall – Contains fat to insulate, cushion, and protect abdominal organs • Gastric pits formed by folded mucosa • Glands and specialized cells are in the gastric gland region ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. STOMACH FUNCTIONS • • • • Acts as a storage tank for food Site of food breakdown Chemical breakdown of protein begins Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. SPECIALIZED MUCOSA OF THE STOMACH • Simple columnar epithelium – Mucous neck cells – produce a sticky alkaline mucus – Gastric glands – secrete gastric juice – Chief cells – produce protein-digesting enzymes (pepsinogens) – Parietal cells – produce hydrochloric acid – Endocrine cells – produce gastrin ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
  25. 25. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 26
  26. 26. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  27. 27. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
  28. 28. SMALL INTESTINE • The body’s major digestive organ • Site of nutrient absorption into the blood • Muscular tube extending form the pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve • Suspended from the posterior abdominal wall by the mesentery ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 29
  29. 29. SUBDIVISIONS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE • Duodenum – Attached to the stomach – Curves around the head of the pancreas • Jejunum – Attaches anteriorly to the duodenum • Ileum – Extends from jejunum to large intestine ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 30
  30. 30. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
  31. 31. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 32
  32. 32. Villi of the Small Intestine Fingerlike structures formed by the mucosa Give the small intestine more surface area ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 33
  33. 33. Microvilli of the Small Intestine Small projections of the plasma membrane Found on absorptive cells Structures Involved in Absorption of Nutrients Absorptive cells Blood capillaries Lacteals (specialized lymphatic capillaries) ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 34
  34. 34. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 35
  35. 35. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 36
  36. 36. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 37
  37. 37. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 38
  38. 38. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 39
  39. 39. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 41
  41. 41. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 43
  43. 43. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 44
  44. 44. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 45
  45. 45. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 46
  46. 46. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 47
  47. 47. ANATOMY h_noveno@hotmail.com 48

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