Unit 10 Respiratory System

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Unit 10 Respiratory System

  1. 1. Facebook: h_noveno@hotmail.com Instagram: Nio Noveno I hope you will make good use of my slides. Enjoy learning!  Anatomy h_noveno@hotmail.com 1
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  8. 8. ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • • • • • • Nose Pharynx Larynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs – alveoli Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 9
  9. 9. ORGANS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Nose • The only externally visible part of the respiratory system • Air enters the nose through the external nares (nostrils) • The interior of the nose consists of a nasal cavity divided by a nasal septum Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 10
  10. 10. Anatomy of the Nasal Cavity • Olfactory receptors are located in the mucosa on the superior surface • The rest of the cavity is lined with respiratory mucosa – Moistens air – Traps incoming foreign particles • Lateral walls have projections called conchae – Increases surface area – Increases air turbulence within the nasal cavity • The nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by the palate – Anterior hard palate (bone) – Posterior soft palate (muscle) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 11
  11. 11. PARANASAL SINUSES • Cavities within bones surrounding the nasal cavity – Frontal bone – Sphenoid bone – Ethmoid bone – Maxillary bone • Function of the sinuses – Lighten the skull – Act as resonance chambers for speech – Produce mucus that drains into the nasal cavity Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 12
  12. 12. PHARYNX (THROAT) • Muscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx • Three regions of the pharynx – Nasopharynx – superior region behind nasal cavity – Oropharynx – middle region behind mouth – Laryngopharynx – inferior region attached to larynx • The oropharynx and laryngopharynx are common passageways for air and food Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 13
  13. 13. STRUCTURES OF THE PHARYNX • Auditory tubes enter the nasopharynx • Tonsils of the pharynx – Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) in the nasopharynx – Palatine tonsils in the oropharynx – Lingual tonsils at the base of the tongue Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 14
  14. 14. LARYNX (VOICE BOX) • Routes air and food into proper channels • Plays a role in speech • Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 15
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  17. 17. STRUCTURES OF THE LARYNX • Thyroid cartilage – Largest hyaline cartilage – Protrudes anteriorly (Adam’s apple) • Epiglottis – Superior opening of the larynx – Routes food to the larynx and air toward the trachea • Vocal cords (vocal folds) – Vibrate with expelled air to create sound (speech) • Glottis – opening between vocal cords Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 18
  18. 18. TRACHEA (WINDPIPE) • Connects larynx with bronchi • Lined with ciliated mucosa – Beat continuously in the opposite direction of incoming air – Expel mucus loaded with dust and other debris away from lungs • Walls are reinforced with C-shaped hyaline cartilage Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 19
  19. 19. PRIMARY BRONCHI • Formed by division of the trachea • Enters the lung at the hilus (medial depression) • Right bronchus is wider, shorter, and straighter than left • Bronchi subdivide into smaller and smaller branches Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 20
  20. 20. LUNGS • Occupy most of the thoracic cavity – Apex is near the clavicle (superior portion) • Base rests on the diaphragm (inferior portion) – Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures • Left lung – two lobes • Right lung – three lobes Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 21
  21. 21. COVERINGS OF THE LUNGS • Pulmonary (visceral) pleura covers the lung surface • Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity • Pleural fluid fills the area between layers of pleura to allow gliding Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 22
  22. 22. RESPIRATORY TREE DIVISIONS • • • • • Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioli Terminal bronchioli Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 23
  23. 23. BRONCHIOLES • Smallest branches of the bronchi • All but the smallest branches have reinforcing cartilage • Terminal bronchioles end in alveoli Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 24
  24. 24. BRONCHIOLES Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 25
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  26. 26. RESPIRATORY ZONE • Structures – Respiratory bronchioli – Alveolar duct – Alveoli • Site of gas exchange Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 27
  27. 27. ALVEOLI • Structure of alveoli – Alveolar duct – Alveolar sac – Alveolus • Gas exchange takes place within the alveoli in the respiratory membrane Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 28
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  30. 30. RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE (AIR-BLOOD BARRIER) • Thin squamous epithelial layer lining alveolar walls • Pulmonary capillaries cover external surfaces of alveoli Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 31
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  35. 35. Figure 15.11a
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  39. 39. RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE (AIR-BLOOD BARRIER) Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 40
  40. 40. DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM • Lungs are filled with fluid in the fetus • Lungs are not fully inflated with air until two weeks after birth • Surfactant that lowers alveolar surface tension is not present until late in fetal development and may not be present in premature babies • Important birth defects – Cystic fibrosis – oversecretion of thick mucus clogs the respiratory system – Cleft palate Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 41
  41. 41. AGING EFFECTS • • • • Elasticity of lungs decreases Vital capacity decreases Blood oxygen levels decrease Stimulating effects of carbon dioxide decreases • More risks of respiratory tract infection Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 42
  42. 42. RESPIRATORY RATE CHANGES THROUGHOUT LIFE • Newborns – 40 to 80 respirations per minute • Infants – 30 respirations per minute • Age 5 – 25 respirations per minute • Adults – 12 to 18 respirations per minute *Rate often increases somewhat with old age Feb-14 h_noveno@hotmail.com 43

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