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  • 1. Basic Principles of Research By Edmund Lawrence S. Florendo
  • 2. Research
    • A careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge, undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles. (Webster)
    • A systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test an existing theory.
  • 3. Research Functions
    • Answers questions, solve problem and make decision
    • See and understand how and why a situation or a problem exists.
    • Discover new things and ideas
    • Validate existing theories or generate new ones
    • Identify and understand the causes and effects of a situation or a phenomenon
  • 4. Sources of Knowledge for Research
    • Tradition
    • Experience
    • Logic/Reasoning
    • Research/Scientific
    • Consulting An Expert
    • Trial And Error
  • 5. Research as a Scientific Method
    • Identification of a problem
    • Formulation of hypothesis
    • Data collection
    • Data analysis
    • Drawing of conclusions
  • 6. Sample Research Problems
      • A nurse who had been in the emergency room for ten years learned that orienting the patient to hospital set-up reduces anxiety.
      • The head nurse invited the nursing scholars to discuss the modalities of nursing applicable to the ward set-up.
      • Nurses assigned in the geriatric unit are alarmed about the increasing incidence of bedsores among the elderly. As a preventive measure in one instance they used banana leaves to line the bony areas of the patient and later they used gloves filed with water and find out which of the two is the best.
  • 7. Sample Research Problems
      • A nurse enrolled in the masteral program wants to determine the effect of yakult in the healing of bedsores. Similarly another nurse conducted an investigation on the effect of guava leaves decoction in the healing of episiorrhaphy wounds
      • If a is not equal to b then a>b or a<b.
  • 8. Two Major Types of Research
      • PURE/BASIC/THEORETICAL - conducted for the sake of knowing
      • CLINICAL/PRACTICAL/APPLIED - conducted for utilization of findings for real life situation.
  • 9.
    • SAMPLE TITLES /EXERCISES
      • Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Couples of Family Planning in Aklan Province
      • The Effect of Touch in the Pain reactions of Neonate who have Underwent Circumcision and Ear Boring At St. Paul’s Hospital, Iloilo City
      • Chromatic and Achromatic Pictures and Their Effects on the Reading Performance of Mentally Retarded Children At the SPED School, Iloilo City
  • 10.
      • Coping Mechanisms of Single Mothers In the City of Iloilo
      • The Lifestyle of Aetas in the Mountains of Ibajay, Aklan
  • 11.
    • OTHER TYPES OF RESEARCH
      • ACCORDING TO RESEARCH DESIGN
        • PRE-EXPERIMENTAL
        • QUASI- EXPERIMENTAL
        • TRUE EXPERIMENTAL
  • 12.
    • PURPOSE:
      • DESCRIPTIVE
      • EXPLANATORY/CORRELATIONAL
      • EXPLORATORY
      • RELATIONAL/CASUAL
      • CAUSAL
      • EVALUATIVE
      • DEVELOPMENTAL
  • 13.
    • STAGES IN RESEARCH PROCESS
      • CONCEPTUAL PHASE
      • PLANNING/DESIGN PHASE
      • EMPIRICAL/IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
      • ANALYTIC PHASE
      • DISSEMINATION/UTILIZATION PHASE
  • 14.
    • Conceptual Phase:
      • problem identification
      • objectives and hypothesis formulation
      • identification of variables
      • review of literature
      • scope and delimitation
      • framework for the study
  • 15.
    • Planning/design Phase:
      • research methodology
      • research design
      • population and sampling
      • instrumentation
  • 16.
    • Empirical/Implementation Phase
      • data gathering and processing
      • editing and encoding
      • tabulating
  • 17.
    • Analytic phase= data analysis and interpretation using statistical treatment
    • Utilization and dissemination = report findings to beneficiaries
  • 18.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
      • ORDER AND SYSTEM
      • CONTROL
      • EMPIRICISM
      • GENERALIZATION
  • 19.
    • ETHICS IN RESEARCH
      • VOLUNTARY PARTICIPATION
      • INFORMED CONSENT BASED ON HELSINSKI DECLARATION
      • FREE FROM ANY PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPLOITATION
      • ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
  • 20.
    • RESEARCH PROBLEMS
      • GAP BETWEEN WHAT IS AND WHAT SHOULD BE OR OUGHT TO BE&.. = TWO OR MORE PLAUSIBLE REASONS OR ANSWERS WHAT IS = PROBLEM SITUATION
        • ACTUAL SITUATION
        • EXISTING CONDITION
        • FACTS AND STATISTICS
        • REAL SITUATION THAT IS CURRENTLY OCCURING
          • Survey shows that>>>>>>>>.
          • Statistics reveal that>>>>>>>.
          • Global &. National & .local &..scenario
  • 21.
      • WHAT SHOULD BE= IDEAL SITUATION
      • EXPECTED OUTCOMES
      • BASED ON STANDARDS OR PROGRAMS
      • POLICIES/THRUSTS OF THE GOVERNMENT
      • WHAT SHOULD BE ENDEAVORED
  • 22.
    • SOURCES OF PROBLEMS
      • EXPERIENCES
      • NEW TECHNOLOGIES
      • CONFLICTING IDEAS AND IDEALS
      • THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES
      • CONFLICTING FINDINGS
      • PROBLEM AREAS IN NURSING
  • 23.
    • CRITERIA FOR RESEARCH PROBLEMS
      • EXTERNAL CRITERIA
        • NOVELTY
        • AVAILABILITY OF SUBJECTS
        • ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
        • FACILITIES/EQUIPMENTS
        • INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT
  • 24.
      • INTERNAL CRITERIA:
        • MOTIVATION/INTEREST
        • EXPERIENCE/QUALIFICATIONS
        • TIME FACTOR
        • COSTS AND RETURNS
        • HAZARDS/ETC.
  • 25.
    • OTHER CRITERIA FOR RESEARCH PROBLEMS
      • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROBLEM
      • PROBLEM RESEARCHABILITY
      • FEASIBILITY OF THE PROBLEM
      • POTENTIALS OF THE RESEARCHER
  • 26.
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCHABLE PROBLEMS
      • ORIGINALITY
      • SIGNIFICANCE
      • MANAGEABILITY
      • MEASURABILITY
      • RESOURCE AVAILABILITY
  • 27.
    • TYPES OF PROBLEMS
      • ULTIMATE PROBLEMS
      • IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
      • RESEARCH PROBLEMS
  • 28.
    • ULTIMATE PROBLEMS
      • SIGNIFICANCE OR IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY
      • WHAT YOU HOPE TO ATTAIN OR DERIVE FROM THE STUDY
      • MENTION RECIPIENTS OF RESEARCH RESULTS
      • WHAT THEY CAN BENEFIT
      • HOW THEY CAN BENEFIT FROM THE RESULTS
  • 29.
    • IMMEDIATE PROBLEMS
      • GENERAL OBJECTIVES
      • MERELY STATES:
        • This study will be conducted to:
          • find out/determine/to answer:
          • then repeat the complete title of the research:
  • 30.
    • Specific objectives
    • Specific problems
    • Mention: Specifically this study will answer the following questions:
    • Or this study will specifically find out
    • Then one by one state the objectives or question for each variable in the study
  • 31.
    • RESEARCH AND VARIABLES
      • VARIABLES VS. CONSTANT
      • VARIABLES= CHARACTERISTICS THAT VARY
      • TWO OR MORE MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE VALUES OR PROPERTIES
  • 32.
    • TYPES OF VARIABLES
      • THREE BASIC TYPES:
        • INDEPENDENT
        • INTERVENING
        • DEPENDENT
      • OTHER TYPES:
        • ANTECEDENT
        • EXTRANEOUS/CONFOUNDING/
        • ORGANISMIC/EXOGENOUS
  • 33.
    • INDEPENDENT VARIABLES:
      • PRESUMED CAUSE
      • INPUT/INTERVENTION
      • TESTS/MODALITIES
      • VARIABLE THAT CAN BE MANIPULATED
  • 34.
    • DEPENDENT VARIABLES:
      • PRESUMED EFFECT
      • OUTPUT/RESULT
      • OUTCOME CANNOT BE MANIPULATED
  • 35.
    • COMPARISON OF TWO VARIABLES
      • INDEPENDENT
        • presumed cause---
        • input
        • intervention/tx.
        • can be manipulated-
        • can stand alone---
      • DEPENDENT
        • presumed effect
        • Output
        • Result or outcome
        • Cannot be manipulated
        • Cannot stand alone
  • 36.
    • INTERVENING VARIABLES:
      • MODERATOR
      • WEAKEN OR STRENGTHEN
      • MODIFIER
      • CONTROLLING FOR
      • CORRELATIONAL
  • 37.
    • LEVELS OF MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES
      • NOMINAL = labels, names, descriptions
      • ORDINAL = extent, order, rankable
      • INTERVAL = numerical, no absolute zero
      • RATIO = numerical, with absolute zero
  • 38.
    • IDENTIFICATION OF LEVELS OF MEASUREMENTS
      • AGE
      • SEX
      • EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN YEARS
      • RELIGION
      • CIVIL STATUS
      • INCOME=HIGH,AVERAGE,LOW
      • PERCENTAGE OF PASSING
      • EXTENT OF SATISFACTION
      • SCORE IN THE EXAMINATIONS
      • NUMBER OF CHILDREN
  • 39.
      • RANK IN THE FAMILY
      • FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICES
      • ATTITUDE TOWARDS LIFE
      • JOB SATISFACTION
      • PERFORMANCE RATING
      • SEXUAL PRACTICES
      • LIFESTYLE
      • BEHAVIORAL RESPONSES
      • BELIEFS
      • HEALING OF WOUNDS IN TERMS OF DAYS
  • 40.
    • HYPOTHESIS
      • HYPOTHESIS VS. ASSUMPTIONS
      • HYPOTHESIS = EDUCATED/INTELLIGENT GUESS
      • HYPOTHESIS = CONJECTURAL STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
    • TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS
      • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
      • STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS
  • 41.
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
      • ALSO KNOWN AS ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:
        • STATEMENT OF RELATIONSHIIP, ASSOCIATION, ETC
        • NON-EQUALITY
        • DIFFERENCE
          • A>B or A IS NOT EQUAL TO B
  • 42.
    • TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS
      • DIRECTIONAL:
        • DIRECT
        • INVERSE
      • NON-DIRECTIONAL
  • 43.
    • IDENTIFICATION OF HYPOTHESIS
      • Yakult is as effective as Betadine in the Healing of bedsores
      • Knowledge is associated with attitudes
      • There is no difference in the pain responses of infants who were touched and were not touched
      • Drug A is more effective than Drug B in the Healing of Leprosy
      • NSS gargle cannot kill streptococcus in the throat
  • 44.
      • There is no relationship between RLE Grade and Academic Grades
      • The higher the knowledge the safer the practice
      • Patients Who were Oriented to Hospital Set-up are less Anxious than those who were not oriented
      • Assignment of Primary Nurses does not affect Patients Satisfaction
  • 45.
    • FRAMEWORKS IN RESEARCH
      • THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
      • CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
      • OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK
  • 46.
    • Theoretical framework
      • Broad or abstract explanation of a phenomenom (theories)
      • Start by saying: This study is anchored on the theory of_______________.
      • Then describe the theory briefly
      • Then explain how the theory is applied in your study
  • 47.
    • Conceptual Framework
      • Concrete explanation of phenomenon (concepts)
      • Also the schematic flow of the variables or paradigm of variables:
      • Enumerate the variables and diagram
      • Independent ---- Dependent
      • ______________ -____________
  • 48.
    • Operational Framework
      • Detailed or specific explanation of the variables
      • Define each of the variables
  • 49.
    • TYPES OF DEFINITIONS
      • THEORETICAL DEFINITIONS-books,dictionary,encyclopedia
      • CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITONS-as applied to your study with defined categories
      • PARADIGM OR SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF VARIABLES
  • 50.
    • REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      • CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE
      • REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
      • IMPORTANCE
      • APPROACHES: COUNTRY, THEME, CHRONOLOGICAL
      • WHEN CONDUCTED: BEFORE, DURING AND AFTER THE STUDY
  • 51.
    • METHODOLOGY
      • RESEARCH DESIGN
      • POPULATION AND SAMPLING
      • INSTRUMENTATION
      • DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING
      • DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPREATION
  • 52.
    • RESEARCH DESIGNS
      • PRE-EXPERIMENTAL
      • SURVEY
      • HISTORICAL
      • CASE STUDY
      • FEASIBILITY
      • CONTENT ANALYSIS
  • 53.
    • QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL
      • NON-EQUIVALENT CONTROL GROUP DESIGN
      • TIME SERIES DESIGN
    • TRUE EXPERIMENTALY
      • PRE-TEST POSTEST CONTROL GROUP
      • POST-TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP
      • SOLOMON FOUR GROUP STUDY DESIGN
  • 54.
    • POPULATION AND SAMPLING
      • POPULATION STUDY VS. SAMPLE STUDY
      • ADVANTAGES OF SAMPLE STUDY
      • PARAMETRIC VS. INFERENTIAL
  • 55.
    • Population
      • Universe
      • Census
    • Sample = representativeness
      • randomnization
      • inferential
  • 56.
    • CALCULATION OF SAMPLE SIZE
      • LYNCH AND OTHERS:
      • n= N
      • 1 + Ne2
      • n=sample
      • N=population
      • e= error or significance/probability
  • 57.
    • TYPES OF SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
      • PROBABILITY SAMPLING = randomnization
      • NONPROBABILTY SAMPLING = no randomnization
  • 58.
    • PROBABILITY SAMPLING
      • SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING=lottery technique
      • SYSTEMATIC RANDOM SAMPLING=sampling interval = N divide by n
      • STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING
      • CLUSTER RANDOM SAMPLING
      • MULTISTAGE RANDOM SAMPLING
  • 59.
      • Stratified= percentage allocation in homogenous group
      • Cluster= random in heterogenous group
      • Multi-stage= in wide scale study using random in each strata
  • 60.
    • NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
      • SNOWBALL
      • PURPOSIVE
      • CRITERIA
      • JUDGMENTAL
      • QUOTA
      • INCIDENTAL/ACCIDENTAL
  • 61.
    • DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
      • PARTICIPANT OBSERAVTION
      • NON-PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
        • QUESTIONNAIRE
        • INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
      • OBSERVATION CHECKLIST
      • FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
  • 62.
    • DATA PROCESSING
      • FIELD EDITING
      • OFFICE EDITING
      • ENCODING
      • TABULATING WITH DUMMY TABLES
  • 63.
    • Threats to validity:
      • a. selection=random
        • =halo effect
        • =hawthorne effect
      • b. testing
      • c. maturation/contamination
      • d. mortality
      • e. history
  • 64.
    • STATISTICAL TOOLS
      • MEASURES OF CENTRAL TENDENCIES
        • MEAN
        • MODE
        • MEDIAN
      • GIVEN TABLES FOR CENTRAL TENDENCIES
  • 65.
    • Nominal=mode, percentages
    • Ordinal=mode, median
    • Interval/ratio=mode ,median, mean and all measures of variability
    • Mean= best measure of central tendency
  • 66.
    • MEASURES OF ASSOCIATION
      • ASSOCIATION MATRIX TABLES
      • MEASURES OF DIFFERENCES
        • chi-square=nominal vs. nominal
        • gamma=ordinal vs. ordinal
        • pearsons r=interval vs. interval
        • t or z-test=differences in two means
        • comparative statistics
  • 67.
    • RESEARCH REPORT FORMAT
      • RESEARCH UTILIZATION
      • CONCLUSIONS/INFERENCES
      • RECOMMENDATIONS AND IM-PLICATIONS
  • 68. END