Ndg presentation at the rainbow minPresentation Transcript
Challenges and opportunities for education Towards building a better future for Guatemala Rainbow Café March 15th 2011
Education is a fundamental human right
Article 26 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Article 13 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ratified by Guatemala on 19 May 1988)
Article 24 of the Convention of the Rights of the Child
Quality education is central to development
The ‘ most powerful weapon, which you can use to change the world’ (N. Mandela)
It creates a ‘ ripple effect of opportunities ’ (UNICEF)
A powerful equalizer , which helps lift people out of poverty (World Bank)
Why invest in education?
Education benefits to:
The individual : health, nutrition, inequality reduction, productivity and earnings increase
Society as a whole : it contributes to peace and stability, democratization, economic health, poverty reduction and environmental sustainability.
1. Numerous challenges
General Challenges (1/2)
More than half of the population is below the national poverty line and 15% lives in extreme poverty.
Distribution of income remains highly unequal :
wealthiest 10% comprising over 40% of Guatemala's overall consumption and owning nearly 50%of the national wealth, while the poorest 10 % owning less than 1%.
missing a middle class, political power mostly within an
General challenges (2/2) 43% of children under five are chronically malnourished, one of the highest malnutrition rates in the world
Facts and figures on education (1/4)
Persistently low literacy rates
Percentage of literate Guatemalans aged 15–24 lowest in Latin America and the Caribbean during 2001–2005.
Since 2002, Guatemala managed to increase its literacy rate among 15–24-year-olds to 88 percent in 2006, adult literacy rate 73% (2003-2008)
But this rate is still the lowest among countries with similar GDP per capita and among lowest in Latin America.
Facts and figures on education (2/4)
Gross Enrollment Rate (GER)
In primary school 95% (2003–2008), but only 72,5 % finish primary school : low score in comparison to Latin America, even lower score if you take in consideration finishing in the established time 39%
In secondary school 56%: lowest score in whole Latin America and Caribbean.
26% of the children between 7 and 14 do not attend school.
Facts and figures on education (3/4)
Too few children complete primary education
The rate of children who complete primary education is the second lowest in Latin America , and significantly lower than that found in Honduras and Bolivia, (countries with lower GDP per capita).
Yet positive results in increasing its aggregated primary completion rates from 1991 to 2006 (from 39 percent to 73 percent).
Facts and figures on education (4/4)
Gender, geographic and ethnic disparities persist
One of the few countries in the region where fewer girls than boys complete primary school.
Children from the wealthiest 20 % of society are more than twice as likely
to finish primary school as the poorest 20 % of children.
Only 42 % of rural children are likely to finish primary school , almost half the rate of urban children.
Indigenous children in both rural and urban areas scored about 17% lower than non-indigenous children in grade 3 and 6 Spanish tests.
Non indigenous male youth has an average of 5,6 years of school attendance, while indigenous youth only 3,5 years.
Intersecting social disparities – urban, rural, indigenous, ladino gap
State policies: missing financial effort (1/2)
Guatemala has among the lowest levels of health and education spending relative to GDP in Latin America and the Caribbean , despite steps taken since the 1996 Peace Agreements to increase social spending.
The Government spends only 2.6 % of its GDP on education compared to the 4,4% in Latin America.
Low tax revenue: Guatemala still has one of the lowest tax bases in the region and among the most generous tax exemptions and fiscal incentives for business: tax base of 12% was below the Central American average of 16 % (2006)
According to the Ministry of Education only 14,5% of public schools count with the basic facilities , such as drinking water, electricity, classrooms in decent conditions, adequate sanitary services and sufficient space.
State policies: missing financial effort (2/2)
State policies: gap between rhetoric and practice
The peace agreements (1996) established the compromise to expand the coverage of education, to promote alphabetization, bilingual education and the education of girls.
The Constitution establishes that primary and basic education is free of charge and mandatory (art.74), education should be multilingual , multiethnic and pluricultural, considering the local community (art. 1, 56 to 58).
One element is the decentralization of the administration of education and projects of schools which were self governed (PRONADE).
Mi familia progresa , a Government program, which obliges families to send their children to school bilingual.
Intercultural education is reduced to bilingualism.
Other influential factors
Lack of access to pre-primary education and secondary education (80% of middle school education is private)
One of the few Latin American countries with teacher education at secondary school level
Very complex national teaching plan
Enormous influence of the teachers’ unions to blockade changes
Value of education vs. corruption
2. Niños de Guatemala: an opportunity
Providing a better future for Guatemalan children
Creation in 2006
Education through a better future
Empowering local communities
Our project: The Primary School Nuestro Futuro (‘Our Future’) in Ciudad Vieja
Since January 2009
In 2009, the school started with three grades
Each year, a new grade is added so that by 2014 the school will be completed
Nuestro Futuro, our primary school in Ciudad Vieja
We target the most underprivileged children , who would not have such an opportunity otherwise.
Some of our students are the first ones of their families to achieve literacy.
138 students to date.
In the morning: government-approved program.
In the afternoon: remedial teaching, arts, crafts and sports.
Involving and empowering local communities
An experienced local staff runs and teaches at Nuestro Futuro
Parents are involved as much as it is possible
We are working on setting up a community center
3. Everyone can do something!
How to help?
Become a volunteer at Nuestro Futuro
Become a padrino and sponsor the education of a child
Leave us a donation
The Padrino Program
By donating 35 Euros or US $50 a month , you will sponsor a specific child’s and his/her education .
Your donation will cover:
Daily snack at the school
School supplies and books
Uniforms once a year
A percentage of the teacher’s wage
A percentage of the school maintenance
See first-hand NDG’s Work in the Primary School Nuestro Futuro: The Experience Guatemala Tour
Visit two typical local businesses
Walk through the fields where most of the families work and through the neighborhood where Nuestro Futuro’s students live .
Visit Nuestro Futuro and taste a ‘ comida tipica’ prepared by the children’s mothers.
Our tour in Ciudad Vieja
For more information visit www.ninosdeguatemala.org Thank you for your attention and support!