► Is the science of behavior and mental processes.
► Psychology is committed to: objectivity, accuracy
and maintaining a healty skepticism.
► Today, psychology study both mental processes
and behavior to see how organisms are affected
by, and in turn affect, the social, physical, and
Aims and Scope of Psychology
►The goals of psychology are describe the
basic components of behavior, to explain
them, to predict them, and, potentially, to
►Psychologists develop theories. A theory is
a collection of interrelated ideas and facts
put forward to explain and predict behavior
and mental processes.
A history os psychology: Schools of
Psychological thought, past and present
SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY
STRUCTURALISM Consideres conscious experience the proper
subject matter of psychology. Used a technique
called introspection (the description and
analysis by a person of what he or she is thinking
FUNCTIONALISM Grew out structuralism and was concerned with
how and mhy the conscious mind, works; a
principal aim was to know how those contents of
consciousness worked together.
GESTALT Suggested that conscious experience is more
than simply the sum of its parts. Focused on the
unity of perception and thinking.
SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY LEADER
PSYCHOANALYSIS He focused on the causes and treatment of
emotional disturbances. Freud worked from the
premise the unconscious processes direct daily
behavior. He emphasized the idea that childhood
experiences influence future adult behavior and
the sexual energy fuels day – to – day behavior.
COGNITIVE Focuses on thought processes and mental
activities involved in perception, memory,
learning, and thinking. Cognitive
psychology focuses on the mental
processes involved in behavior, such as
how people solve problems and appriaise
situations as threatening.
BEHAVIORISM The behaviorists’ prespective focuses on
how observable responses are learned,
modified, and forgotten. A fundamental
assumption is that disordered behavior can
be reshaped and that appropriate,
worthwhile behavior can be substituted
throught the traditional learning
HUMANISTIC Emphasized the uniqueness of the human
experience and the idea that human beings have frr
will to determine their destiny.
BIOLOGICAL Focuses on how physical mechanisms affect
emotions, feelings, thoughts, desires, and sensory
ECLECTICISM: THE BEST OF EVERYTHING
An eclectis orientation allows a researcher or practitioner to view a problem
from several orientations. Consider Depression:
• From a biological perspective alone, people become depressed becouse of
changes in brain chemistry.
•From a behavioral poin of view alone, people learn to be depressed and sad
because of faulty reward systems in ther enviroment.
•The cognitive perspective suggests that depression is made worse by the
interpretations (thoughts) an individual might adopt about a situations.
Is Psychology a Unified Science?
►Psychology is a science that answers
important questions. To do so, it uses a
variety of methods, is flexible in explaining
behavior; accounts for the complexity of the
brain, the environment, and behavior
relations; and accommodates competing
theories. There are many specialities and
interests, but only one science of
Person who studies behavior and uses
behavioral principles in scientific
research or in applied settings for the
treatment of emotional problems
Medical doctor who has completed a
residency specializing in the study of
behavior and the treatment of patients
with emotional and physical disorders
generally have extensive training in
assessment, research, and psychological
treatment of emotional problems.
has estudied the technique of
psychoanalysis and uses it in treating
people with emotional problems
A psychologist Ph. D. will have a wide
variety of job opportunities available in
both the private and the public sectors.
Master´s degrees can function in a wide
variety of settings, even those with
bachelor´s degrees can take an important
role in the delivery of psychological
What psychologists do
►Human service fields
They teach people to cope more effectively
by applying behavioral principles. Ther aim
is to help people solve problems and the
promote well-being. Within the human
service area are the subfields of clinical,
counseling, community and school
Specialize in helping clients with behavior
problems such as anger,shyness, deression
or marital discord.
They work either in private practice or at a
hospital, mental institution or social
Work with people who have emotional problems
also help people with career and family
planning, marriage problems.
Work for mental health agencies, state
governments and private organizations.
they strengthen existing social support
networks and stimulate the formation of nwe
networks to meet a variety of challenges
With the aim of implementing
comprehensive services. A lot of them see
their primary jobs has helping students,
teachers, parents and others understand
Research and use that research to solve
every day practical problems.
Psychologists who treat people with
emotional problems function as one.
Focus on how to use machines most efficiently
Focus on how learning proceeds in the classroom, how
intelligence affects performance and the relationship
between personality and learning
Focus on legal issues, the court, and
Focus on the way life-style changes con
facilitate health improvement.
Is an emerging field that focuses on brain
behavior interactions, the rol of sports in
healthful life-styles, ans the motivation and
preparation of athletes in sports-related
Are concerned with the way employers
evaluate employees, they focus on personal
selection employee motivation, work
behavior and work appraisals.
Focuses on identifying and understanding
the basics process involved in behavior and
The researcher uses a set of techniques, its
does not define the topics that a
The field of developmental psychology
focuses on the emotional, physical and
intellectual changes that take place over
the life span organism.
Social psychology studies how other
people affect individual behavior and
thoughts and specially how people interact
with one another.
Cognitive psychology focuses on thought
processes, especially the relationship of
learning, memory and perception.
Tries to understand the relationship of the
brain on its mechanism to behavior.
Techniques used to
The psychologists study
behavior in both animals
and human beings
Psychologists often work with a
human participants called Subjets
The typical research
process is usually
systematic and begins
whit a specific question.
unexpectedly find an
answer to another
A hypothesis is a
tentative idea that
express a causal
relationship of two
events o variable.
The researchers follow up
systematically, that is they try to
consider all the aspects of a
situation that might cause an
organism to behave as it does.
Only controlled laboratory
experiments permit researches to
make cause-an effect-statements
Correllated events and causally
►Two events are correlated when de
presence of a hi value of one variable o
situation is regulary asociated whit a hi, or
low value of another.
►Events are causally related when one event
makes another event occur.
Significant differences: is
that a behavior not
occurred because of
The technique they use
more than any other to
explore a cause-effect
relationship is a
Components of experiment
►Variables groups experimental and
►operational definitions sample sizes
To collect information
Strengths and weaknesses
of 5 approaches to research
Aproach Strengths Weaknesses
Experiment Manipulated the variable to
control the extraneus influences,
best method for identifying ausal
Artificially or laboratory
envirotment, limited or
generalizability of findings,
manipulation of some variables
is unethical or impractical
Correlational study Measurement of degree of
asociation among variables;
good basis for predictions
Limited opportunity to controlled
third factors; unable to draw
conclusions about causal
Questionarie Effective means of measuring
actions, attitudes, opinions,
preferences, and intentions of
large number of people.
Lack of explanatory power;
validity of findings may be
limitted by samples realibity
dificult to determine; self report
may be inaccurate or biased
Naturalistic observation Observation of behavior in its
Little opportunity to conrol
Case study Study or rare events; extensive
evidence gathered on a single
Lack of generalizability of