What is
Psychology?
Defining Psychology
► Is the science of behavior and mental processes.
► Psychology is committed to: objectivity, accuracy...
Aims and Scope of Psychology
►The goals of psychology are describe the
basic components of behavior, to explain
them, to p...
A history os psychology: Schools of
Psychological thought, past and present
SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY
LEADER
STRUCTURALISM Consid...
SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY LEADER
PSYCHOANALYSIS He focused on the causes and treatment of
emotional disturbances. Freud worked fr...
HUMANISTIC Emphasized the uniqueness of the human
experience and the idea that human beings have frr
will to determine the...
Is Psychology a Unified Science?
►Psychology is a science that answers
important questions. To do so, it uses a
variety of...
PSYCHOLOGIST
Person who studies behavior and uses
behavioral principles in scientific
research or in applied settings for ...
PSYCHIATRIST
Medical doctor who has completed a
residency specializing in the study of
behavior and the treatment of patie...
CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS
generally have extensive training in
assessment, research, and psychological
treatment of emotional...
A psychologist Ph. D. will have a wide
variety of job opportunities available in
both the private and the public sectors.
...
What psychologists do
►Human service fields
They teach people to cope more effectively
by applying behavioral principles. ...
Clinical psychologists
Specialize in helping clients with behavior
problems such as anger,shyness, deression
or marital di...
Counseling psychology
Work with people who have emotional problems
also help people with career and family
planning, marri...
School psychology
With the aim of implementing
comprehensive services. A lot of them see
their primary jobs has helping st...
Applied psychology
Research and use that research to solve
every day practical problems.
Psychologists who treat people wi...
Engineering psychologists
Focus on how to use machines most efficiently
Educational Psychologist
Focus on how learning pro...
Forensic psychologists
Focus on legal issues, the court, and
correctional systems.
Health psychologists
Focus on the way l...
Sports psychologists
Is an emerging field that focuses on brain
behavior interactions, the rol of sports in
healthful life...
Industrial/organizational psychologists
Are concerned with the way employers
evaluate employees, they focus on personal
se...
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY
Focuses on identifying and understanding
the basics process involved in behavior and
thought.
The ...
The field of developmental psychology
focuses on the emotional, physical and
intellectual changes that take place over
the...
Cognitive psychology focuses on thought
processes, especially the relationship of
learning, memory and perception.
Psychol...
Techniques used to
study behavior
The psychologists study
behavior in both animals
and human beings
Psychologists often work with a
human participants called Subjets
The typical research
process is usually
systematic and begins
whit a specific question.
But sometimes
unexpectedly find an...
A hypothesis is a
tentative idea that
express a causal
relationship of two
events o variable.
Systematic explorations
The researchers follow up
systematically, that is they try to
consider all the aspects of a
situat...
Correllated events and causally
related events
►Two events are correlated when de
presence of a hi value of one variable o...
Significant differences: is
the statistically
determined likelihood
that a behavior not
occurred because of
chance alone
The technique they use
more than any other to
explore a cause-effect
relationship is a
controlled experiment.
Components of experiment
►Variables groups experimental and
controlled
►operational definitions sample sizes
Experiment
questionnaires interviews
naturalistic case
study
observation
Another techniques
To collect information
Strengths and weaknesses
of 5 approaches to research
Aproach Strengths Weaknesses
Experiment Manipulated the variable to
c...
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Psychology

  1. 1. What is Psychology?
  2. 2. Defining Psychology ► Is the science of behavior and mental processes. ► Psychology is committed to: objectivity, accuracy and maintaining a healty skepticism. ► Today, psychology study both mental processes and behavior to see how organisms are affected by, and in turn affect, the social, physical, and biological world.
  3. 3. Aims and Scope of Psychology ►The goals of psychology are describe the basic components of behavior, to explain them, to predict them, and, potentially, to manage them. ►Psychologists develop theories. A theory is a collection of interrelated ideas and facts put forward to explain and predict behavior and mental processes.
  4. 4. A history os psychology: Schools of Psychological thought, past and present SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY LEADER STRUCTURALISM Consideres conscious experience the proper subject matter of psychology. Used a technique called introspection (the description and analysis by a person of what he or she is thinking and feeling. WUNDT FUNCTIONALISM Grew out structuralism and was concerned with how and mhy the conscious mind, works; a principal aim was to know how those contents of consciousness worked together. JAMES GESTALT Suggested that conscious experience is more than simply the sum of its parts. Focused on the unity of perception and thinking. WERTHEIMER
  5. 5. SCHOOL FOCUS EARLY LEADER PSYCHOANALYSIS He focused on the causes and treatment of emotional disturbances. Freud worked from the premise the unconscious processes direct daily behavior. He emphasized the idea that childhood experiences influence future adult behavior and the sexual energy fuels day – to – day behavior. FREUD COGNITIVE Focuses on thought processes and mental activities involved in perception, memory, learning, and thinking. Cognitive psychology focuses on the mental processes involved in behavior, such as how people solve problems and appriaise situations as threatening. VARIOUS BEHAVIORISM The behaviorists’ prespective focuses on how observable responses are learned, modified, and forgotten. A fundamental assumption is that disordered behavior can be reshaped and that appropriate, worthwhile behavior can be substituted throught the traditional learning techniques. WATSON
  6. 6. HUMANISTIC Emphasized the uniqueness of the human experience and the idea that human beings have frr will to determine their destiny. MASLOW BIOLOGICAL Focuses on how physical mechanisms affect emotions, feelings, thoughts, desires, and sensory experiences. VARIOUS ECLECTICISM: THE BEST OF EVERYTHING An eclectis orientation allows a researcher or practitioner to view a problem from several orientations. Consider Depression: • From a biological perspective alone, people become depressed becouse of changes in brain chemistry. •From a behavioral poin of view alone, people learn to be depressed and sad because of faulty reward systems in ther enviroment. •The cognitive perspective suggests that depression is made worse by the interpretations (thoughts) an individual might adopt about a situations.
  7. 7. Is Psychology a Unified Science? ►Psychology is a science that answers important questions. To do so, it uses a variety of methods, is flexible in explaining behavior; accounts for the complexity of the brain, the environment, and behavior relations; and accommodates competing theories. There are many specialities and interests, but only one science of psychology.
  8. 8. PSYCHOLOGIST Person who studies behavior and uses behavioral principles in scientific research or in applied settings for the treatment of emotional problems
  9. 9. PSYCHIATRIST Medical doctor who has completed a residency specializing in the study of behavior and the treatment of patients with emotional and physical disorders
  10. 10. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS generally have extensive training in assessment, research, and psychological treatment of emotional problems. PSYCHOANALYST has estudied the technique of psychoanalysis and uses it in treating people with emotional problems
  11. 11. A psychologist Ph. D. will have a wide variety of job opportunities available in both the private and the public sectors. Master´s degrees can function in a wide variety of settings, even those with bachelor´s degrees can take an important role in the delivery of psychological services.
  12. 12. What psychologists do ►Human service fields They teach people to cope more effectively by applying behavioral principles. Ther aim is to help people solve problems and the promote well-being. Within the human service area are the subfields of clinical, counseling, community and school psychology.
  13. 13. Clinical psychologists Specialize in helping clients with behavior problems such as anger,shyness, deression or marital discord. They work either in private practice or at a hospital, mental institution or social service agency.
  14. 14. Counseling psychology Work with people who have emotional problems also help people with career and family planning, marriage problems. Community psychology Work for mental health agencies, state governments and private organizations. they strengthen existing social support networks and stimulate the formation of nwe networks to meet a variety of challenges
  15. 15. School psychology With the aim of implementing comprehensive services. A lot of them see their primary jobs has helping students, teachers, parents and others understand each other.
  16. 16. Applied psychology Research and use that research to solve every day practical problems. Psychologists who treat people with emotional problems function as one.
  17. 17. Engineering psychologists Focus on how to use machines most efficiently Educational Psychologist Focus on how learning proceeds in the classroom, how intelligence affects performance and the relationship between personality and learning
  18. 18. Forensic psychologists Focus on legal issues, the court, and correctional systems. Health psychologists Focus on the way life-style changes con facilitate health improvement.
  19. 19. Sports psychologists Is an emerging field that focuses on brain behavior interactions, the rol of sports in healthful life-styles, ans the motivation and preparation of athletes in sports-related activities.
  20. 20. Industrial/organizational psychologists Are concerned with the way employers evaluate employees, they focus on personal selection employee motivation, work behavior and work appraisals.
  21. 21. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY Focuses on identifying and understanding the basics process involved in behavior and thought. The researcher uses a set of techniques, its does not define the topics that a psychologist examines.
  22. 22. The field of developmental psychology focuses on the emotional, physical and intellectual changes that take place over the life span organism. Social psychology studies how other people affect individual behavior and thoughts and specially how people interact with one another.
  23. 23. Cognitive psychology focuses on thought processes, especially the relationship of learning, memory and perception. Psychological psychology Tries to understand the relationship of the brain on its mechanism to behavior.
  24. 24. Techniques used to study behavior
  25. 25. The psychologists study behavior in both animals and human beings
  26. 26. Psychologists often work with a human participants called Subjets
  27. 27. The typical research process is usually systematic and begins whit a specific question. But sometimes unexpectedly find an answer to another problem.
  28. 28. A hypothesis is a tentative idea that express a causal relationship of two events o variable.
  29. 29. Systematic explorations The researchers follow up systematically, that is they try to consider all the aspects of a situation that might cause an organism to behave as it does. Only controlled laboratory experiments permit researches to make cause-an effect-statements
  30. 30. Correllated events and causally related events ►Two events are correlated when de presence of a hi value of one variable o situation is regulary asociated whit a hi, or low value of another. ►In contrast: ►Events are causally related when one event makes another event occur.
  31. 31. Significant differences: is the statistically determined likelihood that a behavior not occurred because of chance alone
  32. 32. The technique they use more than any other to explore a cause-effect relationship is a controlled experiment.
  33. 33. Components of experiment ►Variables groups experimental and controlled ►operational definitions sample sizes Experiment
  34. 34. questionnaires interviews naturalistic case study observation Another techniques To collect information
  35. 35. Strengths and weaknesses of 5 approaches to research Aproach Strengths Weaknesses Experiment Manipulated the variable to control the extraneus influences, best method for identifying ausal realtionships Artificially or laboratory envirotment, limited or generalizability of findings, manipulation of some variables is unethical or impractical Correlational study Measurement of degree of asociation among variables; good basis for predictions Limited opportunity to controlled third factors; unable to draw conclusions about causal relationships. Questionarie Effective means of measuring actions, attitudes, opinions, preferences, and intentions of large number of people. Lack of explanatory power; validity of findings may be limitted by samples realibity dificult to determine; self report may be inaccurate or biased Naturalistic observation Observation of behavior in its natural context Little opportunity to conrol variables; time-consuming Case study Study or rare events; extensive evidence gathered on a single person Lack of generalizability of findings time-consuming

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