Good morning, my review paper is entitled….(SLIDE #1) Maybe you’re thinking why garlic? or you might as well think that my paper is very elementary.:< I chose garlic simply because of its availability in our community. The results would largely contribute in the management of our agriculture.
(SLIDE # 2) here’s my outline, I have an intro, discussion, conclusion & recommendation, & references. For my discussion I just gave emphasis on the potential of garlic as a biocontrol agent.
(slide 3) I only have 2 objectives.
(Slide 4)Basically, we all know that garlic is known as bawang in tagalog. The taxonomy is shown.
(Slide #5) -Perennial meaning present at all seasons of the year. -Bulb is the useful part, consists of cloves w/c is grouped together in a papery white membrane. -Although garlic grows worldwide, it originated in Central Asia.
(SLIDE # 6) -Garlic has been used medicinally -Moreover, In 1920 (Switzerland) researchers isolated the inert chemical allin from garlic, when crushed or chewed, allin is transformed into the antibiotic allicin- the substance responsible for its characteristic odor and pharmacological qualities. -Studies indicate different functions of garlic as listed in this slide. -Researchers have also recognized its potential as an ecological pesticide.
(SLIDE # 7) -This is just a brief explanation of biological control aka biocontrol. - In addition to this, biocontrol can rely on predation, parasitism or other natural mechanisms.
(SLIDE # 8) -Here are the list of studies I got to show garlic’s potential as a biocontrol agent.
(SLIDE # 9) -In this study, the author aims to answer 3 queries.(Listed above) -What she did was a mixture of finely chopped garlic, mineral oil, water, & liquid soap. -To test its effectiveness, the product was applied to cockroaches and after 10 minutes of observation, the cockroaches were found dead.
(SLIDE #10) -This study made use of purified Allium sativum which has been found to have a detrimental effect on 2 important homopteran pests. -Unfortunately, this pests cannot be controlled by Bt control protein or any established insect control agent. -For the methods, I didn’t have clear explanations because I can’t access the journal. I just referred on the abstract.
(SLIDE # 11) -This study made use of Allium sativum juice to prevent Phytophthora infestans (this organism infects tomato and other crops, this also causes the serious potato disease known as potato blight, the 1 st picture shows symptoms of blight on a leaf) and Psuedoperonospora cubensis ( a species of water mold known for causing downy mildew on cucumber, pumpkin, squash, and watermelon).
(SLIDE #12) -In this study they made use of plant extracts particularly Allium sativum and Ficus carica against some tomato bacterial pathogens. -In vitro & in vivo tests were carried out. -the results are listed. (the picture shows the effect of bacterial pathogens in a leaf)
(SLIDE # 13) -To evaluated the antifungal activity of some extracts against pathogenic fungi, in vitro and in vivo tests were carried out to determine the antifungal activity of 5 plants including Allium sativum. -The results opened up another possibility of using plant extracts as natural fungicide to prevent pathogenic fungi. (1 st picture- F. oxysporum, 2 nd -3 rd picture- effects of fungi in some plants.)
(SLIDE #14) -This study made use of crude garlic extracts to prevent sorghum ergot. -Sorghum ergot is a special limiting factor for the production of sorghum, this can cause ergotism to humans that ingested a food (wheat, rice, etc.) infected with this. -The results shown proved the efficacy of plant extracts as a biocontrol agent. (1 st picture shows sorghum, 2 nd picture shows a wheat infected with ergot).
(SLIDE # 15) -Different authors made use of Allium sativum to control several kinds of unwanted organisms, based on the results presented, I could say that this will be a great alternative to costly insecticides/fungicides considering the health of people and the environment.
(SLIDE # 16) -Here are the list of literatures cited for your reference.
Allium sativum (Garlic): A Review of itsBiology and Potential in BiologicalControlAnna Katrina E. Cruz
• Introduction • Garlic • Biological Control• Discussion • Biology of Allium sativum • Understanding Biological Control • Potential of Allium sativum as a Biocontrol agent• Conclusion and Recommendation• Literatures CitedOutline
•Objectives • To describe the biology of Allium sativum • Evaluate its potential as a biological control agentIntroduction
• Garlic • Local name : Bawang • Scientific name : Allium sativum • Taxonomy • Kingdom : Plantae • Order : Asparagales • Family : Alliaceae • Genus : Allium • Species : sativumIntroduction
• Description • A perennial plant • Grows as tall as 2-3 ft. • Leaves - long and flat. • Flowers -white • Bulbs –consists of several cloves• Habitat • Originated in Central Asia • Grows best in a rich, sandy, moist soil in sunny areas Introduction
• Uses • Medicinal -since the time of the ancient Egyptians • Antibiotic • reduces cholesterol, blood pressure & internal blood clots • may prevent stomach cancer • Strengthen immune system in people with aids. (Swerdlow, 2000) • Ingredient in many dishes • Ecological PesticideIntroduction
• Biological control • Method that made use of an organism to reduce the population density of another organism. • Includes the control of animals, weeds, and diseases. • Uses macrobial and microbial agents (Bale etal., 2008)Introduction
• Studies • Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Feasibility of Allium sativum as a pesticide Binding of Garlic (Allium sativum) leaf lectin to the gut receptor of Homopteran pests is correlated to its insecticidal activity (Bandyopadhay and Das, 2001) Effects of garlic juice containing allicin on Phytophora infestans and downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis ( Portz et.al., n.d.) Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum and Ficus carica extracts on tomato bacterial pathogens (Balestra et.al., 2008) Antifungal activity of some extracts against some plant pathogenic fungi (Aba-Alkhail, 2005) Garlic as a Biological control agent for Sorghum ergotDiscussion (Singh and Navi, 2000)
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agentFeasibility of Allium sativum as a pesticide • Questions? Is it comparable to commercial ones? Is it feasible to be a good source of pesticide Is it harmful to human beings? • Mixture Garlic, mineral oil, water, and liquid soap • Specimen Cockroaches • Results Cockroaches were found dead Garlic is feasible in making pesticide Does not give any harm to human & environmentDiscussion
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Binding of Garlic (Allium sativum) leaf lectin to the gut receptor of Homopteran pests is correlated to its insecticidal activity (Bandyopadhay and Das, 2001) Purified Allium sativum leaf lectin Insect pests Lypaphis erysimi (aphids) Dysdercus cingulatus (red cotton bug) Methods Insect Bioassay Immunohistochemical analysis Western analysis Findings Possibility of using garlic leaf lectin as a potent control agent to engineer crop plants for insects resistanceDiscussion
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Effects of garlic juice containing allicin on Phytophthora infestans and downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis ( Portz et.al., n.d.) Allium sativum juice containing allicin Phytophthora infestans Pseudoperonospora cubensis Results Germination of sporangia & cysts & subsequent germ tube by Phytophthora infestans were inhibited. Desease severity in P. infestans tomato seedlings was also reduced. Severity of cucumber downy mildew caused by P. cubensis was reduced. Recommendation Potential for developing preparations from garlic for use in specialized aspects in organic farmingDiscussion
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum and Ficus carica extracts on tomato bacterial pathogens (Balestra et.al., 2008) Allium sativum & Ficus carica extracts Tomato bacterial pathogens (under greenhouse & field conditions) In vitro & in vivo tests Results Reduced disease incidence by 58% & 30%, disease severity by 68% & 22% Effective disease control of up to 65% (A.sativum) & 38% (F. carica) Useful in protecting plants against bacterial pathogens in the greenhouseDiscussion
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Antifungal activity of some extracts against some plant pathogenic fungi (Aba-Alkhail, 2005) In vitro tests, to determine the antifungal activity of 5 plants Plants were extracted w/ either cold distilled water or cold ethanol 2 culture filtrates of Trichoderma antagonistic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. lycopersici, Botrytis cinerea, & Rhizoctonia solani Results Plants extracts especially those extracted w/ cold distilled water had strong antifungal activity Antagonistic fungus T. harzianum was more efficent to decrease growth of tested fungi Plant extracts could be used as a natural fungicide to control pathogen fungi to reduce dependence on synthetic fungicidesDiscussion
• Potential of Allium sativum as a biocontrol agent Garlic as a Biological control agent for Sorghum ergot (Singh and Navi, 2000) Crude garlic extract Sorghum ergot Results Crude garlic extract was the most effective in providing complete inhibition of conidial germination Greenhouse conditions: Prophylactic spray containing 12% of crude garlic extract gave 98-100% control. Field conditions: the spray gave about 90% ergot control Non-toxic to humans Extracts can be effectively used as an environment friendly method for the control of this disease.Discussion
• Results have shown distinct potential of Allium sativum in controlling pests and some destructive organisms in plants & crops.• This review will aid farmers in managing their crops & guide people in protecting our agriculture.• This may lead students, researchers, & scientists in formulating a mixture made of plant extract that can be used in preventing insect pests.• This is a great alternative to costly insecticides.Conclusion and Recommendation
• Aba-Alkhail A.A. Antifungal Acivity of Some Extracts Against Some Plant Pathogenic Fungi. 2005.• Adejumo T.O. Crop protection strategies for major diseases of cocoa, coffee and cashew in Nigeria. 2004.• Bandyopadhay S., Roy A., and Das S. Binding of garlic (Allium sativum) leaf lectin to the gut receptors of homopteran pests is correlated to its insecticidal activity. 2001.• Bale J.S., van Lenteren J.C., and Bigler F. Biological control and sustainable food production.• Balestra G.M., Heydari A., Ceccarelli D., Ovidi E., and Quatrucci A. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum and Ficus carica extracts on tomato bacterial pathogens. 2008.• Chaturvedi R. and Chaturvedi S. A review on different therapeutic uses and antimicrobial potential of Garlic. n.d.• Kalu I.G., Ofoegbu U., Eroegbusi J., Nwachukwu C.U. and Ibeh B. Larvicidal activities of ethanol extract of Allium sativum (garlic bulb) against the filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. 2010.• Kamel A. and Saleh M. Recent studies on the chemistry and biological activities of the organosulfur compounds of garlic (allium sativum). 2007.• Lirio L.G., Hermano M.L., and Fontanilla M.Q. Note Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Plants from the Philippines. 1998.• Portz D., Koch E., and Slusarenco A.J. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) juice containing allicin on Phytophthora infestans and downy mildew of cucumber caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis. n.d.• Singh S.D. and Navi S.S. Garlic as a Biocontrol Agent for Sorghum Ergot. 2000.• Swerdlow Joel L. Nature’s Medicine, Plants that Heal. 2000Literatures cited