Discourse Studies


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Discourse Studies

  1. 1. Discourse Studies [email_address]
  2. 2. Discourse <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Common concern </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>Realised in communication </li></ul><ul><li>Realised by language </li></ul><ul><li>Realised by texs </li></ul>
  3. 3. Discourse <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Language use beyond sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Language use in contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Social practice </li></ul>
  4. 4. Language in a social-semiotic perspective <ul><li>‘ Social semiotic’ as a general ideology </li></ul><ul><li>As an intellectual stance </li></ul><ul><li>As conceptual angle of the subject </li></ul>
  5. 5. Semiotics <ul><li>A general study of signs </li></ul><ul><li>A study of meanings in most general sense </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistics is a kind of semiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is a set of semiotic systems, a set of systems of meanings, all of which interrelate. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Examples <ul><li>Traffic lights </li></ul><ul><li>Colours </li></ul><ul><li>Language (sounds, letters) </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of colours (salted eggs, navy blue) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Language as social semiotic <ul><li>Used by a community </li></ul><ul><li>Based on convention </li></ul><ul><li>At all levels: word, phrase, sentence, text </li></ul>
  8. 8. Text <ul><li>Discourse is realised by texts </li></ul><ul><li>Communication happens in text </li></ul><ul><li>Text is central to discourse analysis </li></ul><ul><li>What is text? </li></ul>
  9. 9. TEXT CULTURE Genre (Purpose) Situation Who is involved? (Tenor) Subject matter Channel (Field) (Mode) Register
  10. 10. Text <ul><li>It is a semantic unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Something is called a text when it is meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>It is spoken and written. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a phonological or a graphological unit. </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs in a context of situation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Context of situation <ul><li>There are three elements </li></ul><ul><li>Subject matter (field) </li></ul><ul><li>Participants involved (tenor) </li></ul><ul><li>Channel (mode) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Context of culture <ul><li>Every culture produces text types. </li></ul><ul><li>A text type is a genre </li></ul><ul><li>Two general purposes: Transactional and Interpersonal genres </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional: to get something done </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal: for different purposes of communication </li></ul>
  13. 13. Basic English genres <ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul><ul><li>Recount </li></ul><ul><li>report </li></ul><ul><li>News item </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul>
  14. 14. Text analysis <ul><li>Needs linguistic analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation is based on linguistic evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Text analysts need the right ‘knife’ to cut the right ‘bread’ </li></ul><ul><li>Different ‘knives’ for different ‘bread’ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Discourse analysis <ul><li>How texts relate to contexts of situation and context of culture </li></ul><ul><li>How texts are produced as a social practice </li></ul><ul><li>What texts tell us about happenings, what people think, believe etc. </li></ul><ul><li>How texts represent ideology (power struggle etc.) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Text & Discourse Analyses (Nunan, 1993) <ul><li>Text analysis is the study of formal linguistic devices that distinguish a text from random sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Discourse analysts study these text-forming devices with reference to the purposes and functions for which the discourse was produced, and the context within which the discourse was created. The ultimate goal is to show how the linguistic elements enable language users to communicate. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Communication <ul><li>Exchange of meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Happens in texts </li></ul><ul><li>See the following diagram onn stratification and metafunctions </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ideational Interpersonal Textual Discourse Semantic Level Lexicogrammatical Level Phonology/ Graphology Level CULTURAL LEVEL
  19. 19. Stratification <ul><li>Discourse semantic level </li></ul><ul><li>Leexico-grammatical level </li></ul><ul><li>Phonological / graphological level </li></ul><ul><li>All of these are related by realisation </li></ul>
  20. 20. Metafunctions (Abstract Meanings) <ul><li>Ideational meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Textual meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Logical meanings </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ideational Meanings <ul><li>Meanings about phenomena </li></ul><ul><li>About things and goings on </li></ul><ul><li>About circumstances surrounding the happenings and doings </li></ul><ul><li>Realised in wordings through Participants, Processes and Circumstancees </li></ul><ul><li>Centrally influenced by the field of discourse </li></ul>
  22. 22. Examples Participant: Goal Process: Material Participant: Actor fish eat Polar bears Participant: Attribute Process: Attributive Participant: Carrier good hunters are Polar bears
  23. 23. The Mountain <ul><li>Long ago, a great mountain began to rumble and shake . People came from far and near to see what would happen. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A great river will be born ,” said one. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A mighty dragon will come out ,” said another. </li></ul><ul><li>“ A god himself will spring from these rocks,” said a third. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, a small crack appeared in the mountainside. And out popped a mouse. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Interpersonal meanings <ul><li>Express a speaker’s attitudes and judgements </li></ul><ul><li>For acting upon and with others </li></ul><ul><li>Realised in wordings through MOOD and modality. </li></ul><ul><li>Most centrally influenced by tenor of discourse </li></ul>
  25. 25. Examples (Gerot and Wignell 1995:13) <ul><li>Declarative: </li></ul><ul><li>We inspect the growing plants every week </li></ul><ul><li>Imperative: </li></ul><ul><li>Brock, get those plants inspected right now! </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the interpersonal relations between speakers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. examples <ul><li>Brock, do you really expect me to believe this crap? </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Brock, I find your position unatenable </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the degree of informality or formality </li></ul>
  27. 27. Examples <ul><li>Mr. Brock is a fine, upstanding employee. </li></ul><ul><li>Brock is a lazy, incompetent fool . </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the attitudinal lexis which express affect, the degree of like and dislike </li></ul>
  28. 28. Examples: Modality <ul><li>Unfortunately , Brock is an inspector. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortunately , Brock is an inspector. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the Mood Adjunct which reveal attitude or judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>The crop might be inspected. </li></ul><ul><li>The crop should be inspected </li></ul><ul><li>The crop must be inspected </li></ul><ul><li>Consider modal operators revealing the speaker’ certainty. </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Prayer <ul><li>I pray you'll be our eyes And watch us where we go And help us to be wise In times when we don't know </li></ul><ul><li>Let this be our prayer As we go our way Lead us to a place Guide us with your Grace To a place where we'll be safe </li></ul>
  30. 30. Love Changes Everything <ul><li>Love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Hands and faces, birds and sky </li></ul><ul><li>Love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>How you live and how you die </li></ul><ul><li>Love can make the summer fly </li></ul><ul><li>Or a night seem like a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Now I tremble at your name </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing in the world will ever be </li></ul><ul><li>the same </li></ul><ul><li>Love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Days are longer, words mean more </li></ul><ul><li>Love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Pain is deeper than before </li></ul><ul><li>Love will turn your world around </li></ul><ul><li>And that world would last forever </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Brings you glory, brings you shame </li></ul><ul><li>Nothing in the world will ever be the same </li></ul><ul><li>Love, into the world we go </li></ul><ul><li>Planning future, shaping years </li></ul><ul><li>Love does its acts suddenly </li></ul><ul><li>All our wisdom disappears </li></ul><ul><li>Love makes moves on everyone </li></ul><ul><li>All the rules we make are broken </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, love, love changes everything </li></ul><ul><li>Live or perish in its name </li></ul><ul><li>Love will never, never let you be the same </li></ul>
  31. 31. Textual Meanings <ul><li>Express the relation of language to its environment (including what has been spoken or written before). </li></ul><ul><li>Realised through patterns of Theme and cohesion. </li></ul><ul><li>Most centrally influenced by mode of discourse </li></ul>
  32. 32. The linguistic differences between the following spoken and written texts below relate primarily to differences in thematic choices and patterns of cohesion. <ul><li>This is yer phone bill and you hafta go to the Post Office to pay it – uh, by next Monday – that’s what this box tells ya – or they’ll cut yer phone off! </li></ul><ul><li>All phone bills must be paid by the date shown or service will be discontinued. </li></ul>
  33. 33. The relationship between context, meanings and wordings <ul><li>Context Text </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics Lexicogrammar </li></ul><ul><li>(meanings) (wordings) </li></ul><ul><li>Field Ideational Transitivity </li></ul><ul><li>(what is going on) (Processes, Participants, </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Tenor Interpersonal Mood and Modality </li></ul><ul><li>(Social relations) (Speech roles, attitudes) </li></ul><ul><li>Mode Textual Theme, Cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>(Contextual coherence) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Genre <ul><li>It has communicative purpose </li></ul><ul><li>It has generic structure (particular stages; distinctive beginnings, middles and ends </li></ul><ul><li>It has linguistic features </li></ul>
  35. 35. Procedure <ul><li>Tujuan Komunikatif Teks: </li></ul><ul><li>Memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian tindakan atau langkah.   </li></ul><ul><li>Struktur Teks: </li></ul><ul><li>·  Tujuan kegiatan atau judul; </li></ul><ul><li>· Bahan-bahan; </li></ul><ul><li>· Langkah-langkah .  </li></ul>
  36. 36. Procedure <ul><li>Ciri Kebahasaan: </li></ul><ul><li>·  pola kalimat imperative , misalnya , Cut, Don’t mix, dsb . </li></ul><ul><li>action verbs , misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix , dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb . </li></ul><ul><li>·  adverbials untuk menyatakan rinci waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 centimetres from the top , dsb. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Descriptive <ul><li>Tujuan Komunikatif : </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri seseorang, suatu benda atau tempat tertentu.  </li></ul><ul><li>Struktur Teks: </li></ul><ul><li>*  Pengenalan benda , orang atau sesuatu yang akan dideskripsikan . </li></ul><ul><li>* Deskripsi : menggambarkan ciri-ciri benda tersebut,misalnya berasal dari mana, warnanya, ukurannya, kesukaannya dsb. Deskripsi ini hanya memberikan informasi mengenai benda atau orang tertentu yang sedang dibahas saja, misalnya deskripsi tentang ‘ My Dog’ . Ciri-ciri ‘anjing saya’ tersebut dapat berbeda dengan anjing yang lain . </li></ul>
  38. 38. Descriptive <ul><li>Ciri Kebahasaan : </li></ul><ul><li>nouns tertentu, misalnya teacher, house , my rabbit , dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>simple present tense . </li></ul><ul><li>detailed noun phrase untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya She a sweet young lady. </li></ul><ul><li>berbagai macam adjectives , yang bersifat describing, numbering, classifying, mis: two strong legs, two white fangs, dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>relating verbs untuk memberikan informasi tentang subjek, misalnya, My mum is realy cool , It has very thick fur, dsb . </li></ul>
  39. 39. Recount <ul><li>Tujuan komunikatif : </li></ul><ul><li>Melaporkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan </li></ul><ul><li>dengan tujuan memberitakan atau menghibur. </li></ul><ul><li>Struktur teks: </li></ul><ul><li>* Pendahuluan (orientasi) , yaitu memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, di mana dan kapan; </li></ul><ul><li>*   Laporan (rentetan) peristiwa , kegiatan yang terjadi , yang biasanya disampaikan secara berurut; </li></ul><ul><li>*   Komentar pribadi dan/atau ungkapan penilaian (jika ada </li></ul>
  40. 40. Recount <ul><li>Ciri kebahasaan : </li></ul><ul><li>*   nouns dan pronouns sebagai kata ganti orang, hewan atau benda yang terlibat, misalnya David , the monkey , we dsb . </li></ul><ul><li>*  action verbs atau kata kerja tindakan, misalnya go, sleep, run dsb . </li></ul><ul><li>*   past tense , misalnya We went to the zoo; She was happy dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>*  conjunctions dan time connectives yang mengurutkan peristiwa, kejadian atau kegiatan, misalnya and , but, then, after that, dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>* adverbs dan adverb phrases untuk mengungkap tempat, waktu dan cara, misalnya yesterday , at my house, slowly dsb. </li></ul><ul><li>*   adjectives untuk menerangkan nouns , misalnya beautiful , funny, dsb </li></ul>
  41. 41. Cohesion <ul><li>Resources within language that provide continuity in a text over and above that provided by clause and clause complex structure </li></ul><ul><li>Cohesive relations are non-structural relations which work to help a text hang together. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Kinds of relationship <ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reference <ul><li>Refers to systems which introduce and track the identity of Participants through text </li></ul><ul><li>Related to textual meaning, and thus to mode </li></ul><ul><li>Displays different patterns between spoken and written text </li></ul>
  44. 44. Two Aspects of Reference <ul><li>Systems of reference </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieval </li></ul>
  45. 45. System of Reference <ul><li>There are three main distinctions to make: whether the </li></ul><ul><li>Participant is being mentioned for the first time in the text (presenting), or whether it is a subsequent mention (presuming) </li></ul><ul><li>Reference is to a generic class or to specific individual </li></ul><ul><li>Reference is comparative or not. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Systems of Reference <ul><li>generic </li></ul><ul><li>specific </li></ul><ul><li>presenting </li></ul><ul><li>presuming </li></ul><ul><li>+ comparison </li></ul><ul><li>- comparison </li></ul>
  47. 47. Retrieval <ul><li>Anaphora : points the reader or listener ‘backwards’ to a previously mentioned entity, process or state of affairs. </li></ul><ul><li>Homophora : retrieval of identity with reference to the context of culture / situation, or from within or outside the text. E.g. When I woke up, the sun was shining . ‘The sun’ is a culturally shared knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Exophora: retrieval from outside the text. E.g. That koala over there is really sleepy. Esp. in spoken text. </li></ul><ul><li>Endophora: Retrieval from within the text. There are two types: anaphora and cataphora. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Endophora <ul><li>Anaphora: </li></ul><ul><li>Some snakes, though not venomous, are still deadly. They squeeze their victim to death. </li></ul><ul><li>Cataphora: </li></ul><ul><li>It was a venomous one , that small green snake. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging: </li></ul><ul><li>We walk towards the kiosk but the windows were bolted shut. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Lexical Cohesion <ul><li>Refers to the relationships between and among words in a text </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily related to field </li></ul><ul><li>Field tends to have specialised vocabularies and tends to engage in specialised activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals interpersonal meanings through use of attitudinal lexis and qualitative attributes. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Categories of Lexical Cohesion <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Synonymy : leave, depart </li></ul><ul><li>Antonymy : leave, arrive </li></ul><ul><li>Hyponymy (superordination): flower, rose; rose-daffodil </li></ul><ul><li>Meronymy (whole-part relation): flower, petals </li></ul><ul><li>Equivalence : the sailor was their daddy. </li></ul><ul><li>Naming : They call their puppy Fluffy. </li></ul><ul><li>Semblance : They could see their white caps looking like seahorses. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Conjunction <ul><li>Conjunction is the semantic system whereby speakers relate clauses in terms of temporal sequence, consequence, comparison and addition. </li></ul>