Culture typology - organizational behaviour


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Culture typology - organizational behaviour

  2. 2. + TYPOLOGY? A logical classification of cultures which purports to characterize the similarities and differences among them.
  3. 3. + TYPOLOGI ROLE -Help to make sense and provide some order out of the observed phenomena -Help to define what may be the underlying structure -Enables us to predict how other phenomena that may not yet have been observed are going to look ADVANTAGE -Attempt to order a great variety of different phenomena DISADVANTAGE -So abstract that they do not reflect adequately the reality of a given set of phenomena being observed -Narrow our attention span and become more mindless with respect to what we are observing -Perceptions are aggregated and combined into more abstract concept TYPOLOGY?
  4. 4. + CULTURE SURVEYS PROBLEMS -Not knowing what to ask -Employees may not be motivated to be honest -Employees may not understand the questions or interpret them differently -The sample of employees surveyed may not be representative of the key culture carriers. WHEN TO USE? -Determining whether particular dimensions of culture are systematically related to some element of performance -Comparing organizations to each other on selected dimensions as preparation for mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures -Testing whether certain subcultures that we suspect to be present can be objectively differentiated and defined in terms of preselected dimensions that a survey can identify
  5. 5. + TYPOLOGY – GOFFEE AND JONES GOFFEE AND JONES - Organizational culture as ‘communities’ - Divide organizational culture into two types of human relation: sociability and solidarity Sociability The level of warmth and friendliness among employee (go for a drink after work) Solidarity The degree to which employees bond with their employer (interdependence in achieving their tasks)
  6. 6. + TYPOLOGY – GOFFEE AND JONES NETWORKED is friendly but work tasks are not particularly interdependent. Individual but Friendly COMMUNAL is both friendly and interdependent. FRAGMENTED is neither friendly nor interdependent. People keep themselves to themselves, both in work and personal terms. MERCENARY is not particularly friendly but people do need each other to get the work done. “Managers can recruit the most appropriate personality types to work for them, can anticipate potential clashes of culture when dealing with partner and understanding the different cultures involved”
  7. 7. + TYPOLOGY – DEAL AND KENNEDY Deal and Kennedy Based on characterizing different four types of organization Feedback and Reward, tell them they are doing a good or bad job -Rapid feedback: quickly correct any ineffective behavior and hence lead to a consistent culture -Slow feedback: leave mistakes uncorrected, but it also lets people look further out into the future, it must be some substitute activity to keep on track Risk -Low risk: people will take risk to their acceptable limit -High risk: risks need to be managed or accepted
  9. 9. + TYPOLOGY – DEAL AND KENNEDY WORK HARD & PLAY HARD CULTURE TOUGH GUY MACHO CULTURE PROCESS CULTURE BET THE COMPANY CULTURE CHARACTER High speed action leading to high speed recreation Focus on the present rather than the longer- term future Focus on security of the past and of the future The long view is taken, but then much work is put into making sure things happen as planned Meetings, conventions, teamworking, office parties, jargon, buzzwords Managers need to be able to make decisions quickly and accept risk Development of bureaucracies and other ways of maintaining the status quo Tend to produce a lot of internal politics and conflict STRESSOR Quantity of work High risk and potential loss/gain of reward Low stress. Stress may come from internal politics and stupidity of the system also plodding work. High risk and delay before knowing if actions have paid off EXAMPLE Restaurant, Software Company Police, surgeons, brokers, sels orientation organization Bank, and Insurance Company Oil companies, aerospace organization, construction company “if you are influencing into an organization, find out what style it has and adjust your approach accordingly. If you are a member of the organization, you may understand why you are either right at home or way out of place”
  10. 10. + OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument) - Culture can be assessed and changed with a step-by-step manageable method. - Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument is just as timely, easy to use, low priced, and manageable - The OCAI is practical and focused, timely, manageable, quantitative, involving, and valid TYPOLOGY – CAMERON QUIN
  11. 11. TYPOLOGY – CAMERON QUIN   Leader Type Value Drivers Theory for Effectiveness Quality Strategies The Clan Culture: a pleasant place to work where people have a lot in common Facilitator, Mentor, Team Builder Commitment, Communication, Development Human Development & Participation are effective Empowerment, Team Building, Employee Involvement, Human Resource Development, Open Communication The Adhocracy Culture: a dynamic, entrepreneurial and creative place to work Innovator, Entrepreneur, Visionary Innovative Outputs, Transformation, Agility Innovation, Vision and New Resources are Effective Surprise and Delight, Creating New Standards, Anticipating Needs, Continuous Improvement, Finding Creative Solutions The Market Culture: A results oriented organization whose major concern is getting the job done Hard Driver, Competitor, Producer Market Share, Goal Achievement, Profitability Aggressive Competition and Customer Focus are Effective Measuring Customer Preferences, Improving Productivity, Creating External Partnership, Enhancing Competitiveness, Involving Customer and Suppliers The Hierarchy Culture: A very formalized and structured place to work, focused on efficiency Coordinator, Monitor, Organizer Efficiency, Punctuality, Consistency, and Uniformity Control and Efficiency with appropriate processes are effective Error Detection, Measurement, Process Control, Systematic Problem Solving, Quality Tools
  12. 12. + TYPOLOGY – CAMERON QUIN The Assesment - Dominant characteristics - Organizational leadership - Management of employees - Organizational Glue - Strategic Emphasize - Criteria of success
  13. 13. + PERTANYAAN DI KELAS : 1.Mustarofah Ahmad Apa indikator dari resiko dalam pengklasifikasian menurut Deal & Kennedy? 2.Sri Milawati Jika sudah dilakukan OCAI pada perusahaan dan hasil pada pada grafik untuk situasi “now” dan “future” berimpit apakah artinya perusahaan tidak perlu berubah budayanya? 3.Louisa Zephania Ketika Pixar dan Disney bergabung, apakah harus meninggalkan budaya-budaya lama dan membuat budaya baru?
  14. 14. + THANKYOU