INCREASED LUNG VENTILATION
Aerobic training results in a more efficient and
improved lung ventilation.
Lung ventilation is increased because of increased
tidal volume and respiratory frequency.
INCREASED MAXIMUM OXYGEN UPTAKE
Maximum oxygen uptake is improved as a result of aerobic
training – it can be improved between 5 to 30 %.
Improvements are a result of:
- Increases in cardiac output
- Increase number of red blood cells
- Oxygen uptake difference
- Muscle capillarisation
- Greater oxygen extraction by muscles
INCREASED ANAEROBIC OR LACTATE
Lactate threshold changes as a result of endurance
As a result of improved oxygen delivery & utilization, a
higher lactate threshold (the point where oxygen
supply cannot keep up with oxygen demand) is
Changes during Exercise
-Blood flow/min is increased from 5L/min to about 2530L/min.
-The total amount of oxygen entering the lungs
increases from 250ml/min at rest to about
-Carbon dioxide removal increases from 200ml/min to
Heart rate increase
Stroke volume increase
Cardiac output increase
Blood flow-blood are shunted away from major organs
such as kidney, liver, stomach, intestine
Blood pressure increase
The difference in oxygen content of arterial and venous
Size of lungs increase to facilitate the osmosis of oxygen
and carbon dioxide.
Increase in the vascular network of muscles which
enhances the transfer of gases.
Increase in breathing and heart rate.
Pulse rate and blood pressure increase as our hearts pump
harder to get more oxygen to the cells.
Change in oxygen affinity of blood.
The rate of miscarriages is usually higher at altitudes above
two miles because fetuses receive less oxygen from their
The circulatory system cannot work as efficiently,
because there is less oxygen and carbon dioxide
Heart rate increase
Dilation of coronary arteries
Cardiac contractility increase
After being at a high altitude for a long time, the body
It will produce more red blood cells so that it can pick
up more oxygen, since less oxygen is carried by each
haemoglobin at high altitudes.
ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS
AMS usually occurs above 8,000 ft. (2,400 m)
It is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen
levels at high altitudes.
The symptoms of AMS are sleeping
difficulty, dizziness, fatigue, headache, loss of
appetite, nausea or vomiting, rapid pulse (heart rate)
and shortness of breath with exertion.
TREATMENTS FOR ALTITUDE
Descend to lower altitude or stay at current altitude to
see if his or her body adjusts
Give aspirin or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) for headache
Give oxygen, if available
Keep the person warm and have him or her rest
Give plenty of liquids (but not alcohol)
HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA
HACE has occurred from 10,000 ft. and above.
It occurs when AMS is overlooked and thus brain
In extreme cases, death can result.
The symptoms of HACE are imbalance, severe
headache, vomiting, nausea, and hallucinations.
HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY
HAPE has occurred from 8,000 ft. and above
It occurs when excessive blood pressure causes fluid to leak
from the blood vessels into the alveoli sacs of the lungs.
The body compensates by increasing heart rate and blood
pressure, thereby forcing more fluid into the lungs.
The fluid in the lungs blocks the oxygen-blood interface.
If altitude is not decreased, the victim drowns because no
oxygen reaches the lung/capillary interface.
The symptoms of HAPE are difficulty in
breathing, gurgling sound in lungs, fever, coughing, and
TREATMENTS FOR ALTITUDE
SICKNESS (HACE AND HAPE)
Descend to a lower altitude as soon as possible. Even a
1,000-2,000 feet (305-610 m) descent can dramatically
improve one's symptoms.
Oxygen therapy . If available, the patient can be placed in a
Gamow bag, which is a portable high-pressure bag that
increases oxygen tension and may stabilize the patient.
Use of medications such as:
-Dexamethasone (steroid) that reduces swelling of
-Diamox that signals the brain to breathe more by
correcting the imbalance chemical in the blood.
-Nifedipine that decreases the narrowing of the
artery that supplies blood to the lungs and help to
reduce chest tightness.
MEN VS WOMEN
Professor Damian Bailey, from the University of
Glamorgan, who will lead the research, believes female
brains are better equipped to deal with a lack of oxygen.
The decrement of maximum aerobic capacity at 4350m was
less in women than in men under similar modes of ascent.
Men are at greater risk of altitude sickness than women, as
men tend to get HAPE more frequently than women
Normal dietary iron intakes are adequate to support
increased hemoglobin synthesis for males at high altitude,
but females exposed to high altitude may benefit from a
dietary iron supplement.