Chronic Obstructive Disorder
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Chronic Obstructive Disorder

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Chronic Obstructive Disorder Chronic Obstructive Disorder Presentation Transcript

  • COPDChronic Obstructive Lung Disease
    Developed by:
    Dana Hughes, RN, PhD
    Miners Hospital, University of Utah
    Libbey M. Chuy, MPH
    Asthma Program, Utah Department of Health
  • Overview
    What is COPD?
    How do I know if I have COPD?
    How common is it?
    General population
    Mining population
    What increases my risk of developing COPD?
    How can I prevent getting COPD?
    How is COPD treated?
  • What is COPD?
    A set of lung diseases that limit air flow and is not fully reversible.
    COPD patients report they are “hungry” for air
    Usually progressive and is associated with inflammation of the lungs as they respond to noxious particles or gases
    Potentially preventable with proper precautions and avoidance of precipitating factors
    Symptomatic treatment is available
  • Two Major Causes of COPD
    Chronic Bronchitis is characterized by
    Chronic inflammation and excess mucus production
    Presence of chronic productive cough
    Emphysema is characterized by
    Damage to the small, sac-like units of the lung that deliver oxygen into the lung and remove the carbon dioxide
    Chronic cough
    *Source: Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines for COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine. 2005;9(1):1.
  • Primary Symptoms
    Chronic Bronchitis
    Chronic cough
    Shortness of breath
    Increased mucus
    Frequent clearing of throat
    Emphysema
    Chronic cough
    Shortness of breath
    Limited activity level
  • Normal versus Diseased Bronchi
  • Emphysema
  • How common is COPD?
    About 13.9% of the U.S. adult population (25+ years) have been diagnosed with COPD*
    An estimated 15-19% of COPD cases are work-related**
    24 million other adults have evidence of troubled breathing, indicating COPD is under diagnosed by up to 60%***
    *Braman, S. Update on the ATS Guidelines for COPD. Medscape Pulmonary Medicine. 2005;9(1):1.
    **CDC programs in Brief– Workplace Health and Safety-Work-related Lung Diseases. www.cdc.gov/programs/workpl18.htm
    ***COPD Fact Sheet. Oct 2003. www/lungusa.org
  • COPD-A Major Cause of Hospitalization & Death
    COPD was the:
    Leading cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. in 2000
    Fourth leading cause of death
  • COPD in the Mining Industry
    Studies show:
    An increased number of cases of chronic bronchitis in coal & gold miners
    Long-term exposures to low levels of silica may lead to the development of chronic bronchitis & emphysema
    Chronic exposure to coal dust, particularly high levels, may lead to severe respiratory impairment (emphysema)
    *Hnizdo & Vallyathan Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to occupational exposure to silica dust: a review of epidemiological and pathological evidence. Occup Environ Med 2003;60:237-243.
  • COPD Death Rates in Mining Industry1999
    Coal mining was at the top of a list of industries with a significantly elevated death rate from COPD
    Non-metal and metal mines were also in the top 5 industries for elevated COPD death rate
    Top 5 occupations for elevated COPD death rate included:
    Helpers, mechanics and repairers
    Mining machine operators
  • What can cause COPD?
    Smoking is the primary risk factor
    Long-term smoking is responsible for 80-90 % of cases
    Smoker, compared to non-smoker, is 10 times more likely to die of COPD
    Prolonged exposures to harmful particles and gases from:
    Second-hand smoke,
    Industrial smoke,
    Chemical gases, vapors, mists & fumes
    Dusts from grains, minerals & other materials
  • Other Risk Factors for COPD
    History of childhood respiratory infections
    Genetic makeup
    Increasing age
  • Ways to prevent or slow the progression of COPD
    Stop smoking, if you smoke, to prevent further damage to your body
    Smoking cessation is critical for all severities of COPD
    Avoid or protect yourself from exposures to
    Second-hand smoke
    and
    Other substances such as chemical vapors, fumes, mists, dusts, and diesel exhaust fumes that irritate your lungs
  • How is COPD Treated?
    COPD can be managed, but not cured
    Treatment is different for each individual and is based on severity of the symptoms
    Early diagnosis and treatment can
    Slow progress of the disease
    Relieve symptoms
    Improve an individual’s ability to stay active
    Prevent and treat complications
    Improve quality of life
  • When should you see your doctor?
    If smoker, see doctor for baseline evaluation of your lungs
    When first experiencing shortness of breath or having other lung symptoms
    When your symptoms get worse
    Seek emergency medical treatment if:
    Breathing suddenly becomes more difficult
    If diagnosed with chronic bronchitis, emphysema or COPD, see doctor 1-2 times yearly to review your treatment plan
  • What medications are used to treat symptoms?
    Bronchodilators –
    Relaxes muscles around airways
    Steroids
    Reduces inflammation
    Oxygen therapy
    Helps with shortness of breath
  • What medications are used to prevent complications?
    Annual flu vaccine
    Reduces risk of flu and its complications
    Pneumonia vaccine
    Reduces risk of common cause of pneumonia
  • Resources & References
    American Lung Association. Breathing hazards at work, Workplace exposures can generate breathing hazards, accessed 11/02/06
    American Lung Association. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Fact Sheet, 2003
    www.lungusa.org
    Centers for Disease Control, DHHS, CDC Programs in Brief-Workplace Health and Safety-Work-Related Lung Disease, 2005
    www.cdc.gov/programs/workpl18.htm
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Executive Summary, Updated 2003
    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, NIH. COPD-Key points and How is COPD treated? January, 2006 http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health