Linked data driven EPCIS Event based Traceability across Supply chain business processes

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Linked data driven EPCIS Event based Traceability across Supply chain business processes

  1. 1. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Linked data Driven, Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains Monika Solanki Aston Business School Aston University, Birmingham, UK m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  2. 2. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Motivation The Electronic Product Code(EPC) provides products with unique, serialised identities. The Electronic Product Code Information Service (EPCIS)* provides a set of specifications for the syntactic capture and informal semantic interpretation of EPC based product information. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  3. 3. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Motivation Large volumes of traceability data are recorded at each partner’s end. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  4. 4. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Observations Supply chain tracking and tracing information sharing limitations While the datasets are inherently related, the underlying schemas and data storage mechanisms employed render the datasets disconnected. The EPCIS XML schemas define only the structure of the event data to be recorded. The semantics of event data and data curation processes are informally defined in the specification. Lack of a systematic and standardised way to exchange traceability information. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  5. 5. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Declarative representative of EPCIS events EEM: EPCIS Event Model Enables the sharing and semantic interpretation of EPCIS event data. Exploits SW/LD technologies, while drawing requirements from business processes involved in the tracking and tracing of goods. Explicitly defines relationships with CBV entities. Encodes informal EPCIS integrity constraints as declarative rules. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  6. 6. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Declarative representative of EPCIS events EEM: EPCIS Event Model EEM based linked datasets can be exploited in order to improve visibility, accuracy and automation along the supply chain. EEM can be used to derive implicit knowledge that can expose inefficiencies such as shipment delay, inventory shrinkage and out-of-stock situation. EEM forms the basis for traceability in supply chains - Event based Linked Pedigrees. EEM to be further exploited for Complex Event Processing and Stream Reasoning over continuous streams of semantically interlinked EPCIS event datasets. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  7. 7. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EPCIS(1.1) Events: An informal Intuition One generic and four specific physical event types EPCISEvent: the generic EPCIS event. ObjectEvent: an event that occurred as a result of some action on one or more entities denoted by EPCs. “This list of objects was observed entering DC #9 at 10:01AM, during Receiving”. AggregationEvent: an event that happened to one or more EPC-denoted entities that are physically aggregated. “This list of objects was just Palletized with this Pallet ID at Palletizer #27 at 12:32PM”. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  8. 8. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EPCIS(1.1) Events: An informal Intuition One generic and four specific physical event types. TransactionEvent: an event in which one or more entities denoted by EPCs become associated or disassociated with one or more identified business transactions. “Order #123 was fulfilled with objects x, y and z”. TransformationEvent: an event in which one or more physical or digital objects identified by instance-level (EPC) or class-level (EPC Class) identifiers are fully or partially consumed as inputs and one or more objects identified by instance-level (EPC) or class-level (EPC Class) identifiers are produced as outputs. “50 kgs of tomato and 7 kgs of sugar were used to produce 20 litres of tomato ketchup”. QuantityEvent has been deprecated m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  9. 9. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Data model components EPCs Time Read Points Business Location Business steps Disposition Transaction types Action Quantities and measurements Sources and Destinations ILMD (Instance Lot Master Data) m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  10. 10. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Semantic Web/Linked Data for EPCIS event based traceability RDF data model - a “triples” based model. HTTP URIs - a universal identifier for resources on the Web. RDFS and OWL - domain knowledge representation standards. SPARQL - a query language for datasets encoded using the RDF data model. SWRL - declarative rule representation format. Linked Data - a set of principles for publishing interlinked RDF datasets. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  11. 11. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Linked Data A set of principles for publishing data on the Web thereby creating a Web of data Use URIs as names for things Use HTTP URIs Provide useful information in RDF Include RDF links to other URIs Linked Open Data Publish data under an open license m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  12. 12. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris The evergrowing LOD cloud m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  13. 13. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM: The EPCIS Event Model A domain specific, ontological information/data model. Restricts the entities, relationship and attributes to a large subset of the EPCIS specification. Defines conceptual primitives with the appropriate level of semantic abstraction required to model the various kinds of EPCIS events that can be raised and the four information dimensions they encapsulate. Focuses on a tight conformance with the EPCIS standard and Simplicity. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  14. 14. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling the generic EPCISEvent An EPCIS event has three temporal properties associated with it. An EPCIS event occurs at a unique location and is part of a singular business process. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  15. 15. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling the generic EPCISEvent Class: EPCISEvent SubClassOf: eventTimeZoneOffset exactly 1 xsd:dateTime, eventRecordedAt exactly 1 xsd:dateTime, eventOccurredAt exactly 1 xsd:dateTime ObjectProperty: hasReadPointLocation Characteristics: Functional Domain: EPCISEvent Range: ReadPointLocation m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  16. 16. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling ObjectEvent An ObjectEvent is an EPCISEvent. An ObjectEvent is required to have associated EPCs, and an action type. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  17. 17. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling ObjectEvent Class: ObjectEvent SubClassOf: (actionType some Action) and (associatedWithEPCList some SetofEPCs), EPCISEvent m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  18. 18. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling TransformationEvent A TransformationEvent is an EPCISEvent. A TransformationEvent may be associated with other TransformationEvent m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  19. 19. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Modelling TransformationEvent Class: TransformationEvent SubClassOf: (((associatedWithInputEPCList some SetofEPCs) and (hasInputQuantityList some InputQuantityList)) and ((associatedWithOutputEPCList some SetofEPCs) and (hasOutputQuantityList some OutputQuantityList))) or ((((associatedWithInputEPCList some SetofEPCs) and (hasInputQuantityList some InputQuantityList)) or ((associatedWithOutputEPCList some SetofEPCs) and (hasOutputQuantityList some OutputQuantityList))) and (associatedWithTransformationEvent some TransformationEvent)), EPCISEvent Takes into account the informal semantics of TransformationEvent m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  20. 20. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM Entities: Classes ObjectEvent, AggregationEvent, TransformationEvent and TransactionEvent are specialised classes of EPCISEvent. http://purl.org/FIspace/eem# m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  21. 21. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM Entities: Classes The class EPC provides a placeholder for EPCs. The list of EPCs is represented by SetOfEPCs, specialising from Set*. *http://purl.org/co/ m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  22. 22. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM Entities: Classes Action denotes the activity undertaken on objects. Individuals: ADD, OBSERVE and DELETE. BusinessLocation and ReadPointLocation classes capture physical location details and specialise from the Location class defined in the vcard* vocabulary. SetOfEvents representing a collection of EPCISEvent instances (useful in creating Linked pedigrees). *http://www.w3.org/2006/vcard/ns# m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  23. 23. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM Entities: Event Properties Generic eventID Specific AggregationEvent: hasAggregationID QuantityEvent: hasEPCClass Temporal eventOccurredAt: subproperty of hasEventDate from the DOLCE+DnS Ultralite (DUL*) ontology. eventRecordedAt eventTimeZoneOffset Location hasBusinessLocation hasReadPointLocation *http://ontologydesignpatterns.org/ont/dul/DUL.owl m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  24. 24. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Core Business Vocabulary A companion standard to the EPCIS standard is the Core Business Vocabulary(CBV)* standard. The CBV standard supplements the EPCIS framework by defining vocabularies and specific data values, e.g., Disposition: returned, in_progress, active. BusinessStep: receiving, stocking, shipping. CBVVocab* provides an ontological information model corresponding to the terminology and data values defined in the CBV standard. *http://purl.org/FIspace/cbv# *http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/cbv m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  25. 25. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris EEM Entities: Business Context m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  26. 26. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Implementing EEM: LinkedEPCIS library EEM is a complex data model. Non trivial to generate class assertions and complex queries without knowing the structure of the model and nomenclature of the entities. LinkedEPCIS* - an open source Java API to, Encourage the uptake of EEM among EPCIS conforming organisations and industries Ease the creation of EEM instances Facilitate querying over the instantiated datasets * http://code.google.com/p/linked-epcis/ m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  27. 27. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Implementing EEM: LinkedEPCIS library Capture EPCIS events as linked data. Provides classes, interfaces and RESTful Web services for capturing, storing and querying EPCIS events. Built over the Sesame* framework. Every event generated using LinkedEPCIS, is systematically assigned a HTTP URI. Query classes encoding templated SPARQL queries for the most commonly made queries on EPCIS events. Results are made available in RDF/XML, JSON and Turtle serialisations through the Web services. * http://openrdf.org m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  28. 28. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Interlinking EPCIS Event data m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  29. 29. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Applying EEM to the Agri-food domain The tomato supply chain involves thousands of farmers, hundreds of traders and few retail groups. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  30. 30. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Agri-food scenario The tomatoes are packaged and shipped to downstream traders. The packaging of tomatoes is done in crates, each of which is tagged with an RFID chip that carries an EPC(SGTIN). Sensors installed at the packaging unit register the EPCs of the crates as they are being packed. Every read is recorded and registered as an EPCIS event type based on the business process, the location and the supply chain operation. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  31. 31. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Agri-food scenario: Subset of EPCIS events Supply chain operation EPCIS event type Business Step Disposition Action type 1. Commissioning crates for tomatoes Object event commissioning active ADD 2. Storing crates Quantity event storing in_progress - 3. Aggregating crates in pallets Aggregation event packing in_progress ADD 4. Loading and shipping pallets Transaction event shipping in_transit ADD m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  32. 32. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Agri-food scenario: Linked data Code +library demo m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  33. 33. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Linked Pedigrees: Background Most widely prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry. Pedigree(e-pedigree) is an audit trail that records the path and ownership of a drug as it moves through the supply chain. Each stakeholder involved in the manufacture or distribution of the drug adds information to the pedigree. The Pedigree standard* provides an XML schema for the description of the life history of a product. “Event based Pedigree”: utilises EPCglobal’s EPCIS specification for capturing events in the supply chain and generating pedigrees based on a relevant subset of the captured events. * http://www.gs1.org/gsmp/kc/epcglobal/pedigree m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  34. 34. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Knowledge Encapsulation in Linked Pedigrees Direct linkages in the linked pedigree generated by each supply chain trading partner URIs for product master data: product identifiers, sensor based product related information, e.g., storage conditions. transaction data: invoices, order numbers, quantity. consignment information: logistics, receiver, shipper, location Data interpretation rules if any. URIs for the pedigree datasets from the stakeholders in the immediate upstream or downstream of the supply chain. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  35. 35. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris OntoPedigree: A CO design pattern m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  36. 36. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Generating Linked Pedigrees event URIs Events incorporated in pedigree creation commissioning: uniquely identifying products shipping: associating products with orders receiving: associating received products with orders Pedigree Component Linking relationship Resource identifier Product information hasProductInfo Product data URIs Serialised product data URIs Consignment information hasConsignmentInfo Commissioning events - Object event/Aggregation event URIs Transaction information hasTransactionInfo Shipping events - Transaction event URIs m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains
  37. 37. SmartAgrimatics, 18th June 2014, Paris Conclusions The representation of EPCIS events on the Web of data is an important step towards achieving the objectives of, sharing traceability information detecting inconsistencies EEM provides the ontological primitives required to represent EPCIS events using Semantic Web standards on the Web of data. The capture, storage and querying of EPCIS events linked datasets is realised using the LinkedEPCIS library, which can be integrated with existing RFID and EPCIS implementations. EEM and the LinkedEPCIS library has been exemplified by modelling and curating events from the agri-food supply chain. m.solanki@aston.ac.uk Linked data Driven, EPCIS Event Based Traceability in Supply Chains

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