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14 cross culture 1 hour

14 cross culture 1 hour



Cross -cultural sensitivity for tour guides.

Cross -cultural sensitivity for tour guides.



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    14 cross culture 1 hour 14 cross culture 1 hour Presentation Transcript

    • 1 Tour Guiding Series Across cultures Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Professor Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel
    • 2 Tour Guiding Series Are you this monkey?
    • 3 Tour Guiding Series Challenge! • Every day is a new day! • Every customer, every group is a new challenge – Different countries, different cultures – Different religion – Different socio-economic background – Idiosyncrasy • Individual’s expectations– you need to appreciate the differences!
    • 4 Tour Guiding Series Do you know? • Never touch the head of a Thai – The head is considered sacred in Thai • Avoid using triangular shapes in Hong Kong, Korea and Taiwan. – It is considered a negative shape. • The number 7 is considered bad luck in Kenya, good luck in Czech Republic and has magical connotation in Benin, Africa
    • 5 Tour Guiding Series Do you know? • The number 10 is bad luck in Korea • The number 4 is means Death in Japan • Red represents witchcraft and death in many African countries
    • 6 Tour Guiding Series Cultural differences! • To address the individual’s needs it is important to understand the differences in the background from which an individual comes. • It is necessary to understand the primary ways in which cultures around the world vary.
    • 7 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 8 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 9 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 10 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 11 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 12 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 13 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 14 Tour Guiding Series Manifesting culture!
    • 15 Tour Guiding Series Artifacts Values and Beliefs Underlying assumptions A. Products; and B. Behaviours Readily observable, but hard to interpret Cultural elements include: anecdotes, arts, ceremonies, communications, heroes, habits, jargon, language, myths , norms, physical arrangements, rituals, ceremonies, dresses, crafts, etc. Not directly observable, but can be distilled from how people explain and justify what they do Cultural elements include: cognitive process, beliefs, commitment, ethics, feelings, values, ideologies, justifications, vision, knowledge, sentiments, etc. Foundation of culture that is so widely shared that people are largely unaware of them Cultural elements include: assumptions, consensus, ideologies, mindset, philosophy, world view, etc. Understanding culture
    • 16 Tour Guiding Series What is culture? • There are more than 160 definitions of culture • “Communicable knowledge, learned behavior passed on from generation to generation” • “An Integrated system of learned behavior patterns that are distinguishing characteristic of the members of a given society”
    • 17 Tour Guiding Series What is culture? • “ The collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category from those of another” • “Something that shapes behavior or structures one’s perceptions of the world.”
    • 18 Tour Guiding Series Culture “Culture is how an individual relates to the world around him/her”
    • 19 Tour Guiding Series Geert Jan Hofstede Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster."
    • 20 Tour Guiding Series Geert Jan Hofstede IndividualismIndividualism Low PowerLow Power DistanceDistance AchievementAchievement OrientedOriented (Masculinity)(Masculinity) Low UncertaintyLow Uncertainty AvoidanceAvoidance Collectivism High Power Distance Nurturing Oriented (Femininity) High Uncertainty Avoidance
    • 21 Tour Guiding Series Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture • Individualism – Collectivism – Individualism emphasizes pursuit of individual goals, needs, and success. – Collectivism emphasizes group need, satisfaction, and performance. • Power Distance – The degree to which members of a society accept differences in power and status among themselves.
    • 22 Tour Guiding Series Hofstede’s Dimensions of National Culture • Uncertainty Avoidance – The degree to which people are comfortable with ambiguous situations, and – with the inability to predict future events with accuracy. • Masculinity – Femininity – High masculinity in a culture designates assertiveness, dominance, and interdependence. – High femininity in a culture designates inter- dependence, compassion, and emotional opinions.
    • 23 Tour Guiding Series Fifth Cultural Dimension Hofstede, in collaboration with Bond (1984), identified an additional cultural dimension by which nations can be classified: Confucian Dynamism. Confucian Dynamism is also referred to as Long Term Orientation vs. Short Term Orientation.
    • 24 Tour Guiding Series Long term vs. Short term orientation Long term: values oriented towards the future like savings and persistence Short term: values oriented towards the past and present like respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations
    • 25 Tour Guiding SeriesCountry PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO India 77 48 56 40 61 USA 40 91 62 46 29 UK 35 89 66 35 25 Australia 36 90 61 51 31 Brazil 69 38 49 76 65 China 80 20 66 30 118 Germany 35 67 66 65 31 Hong Kong 68 25 57 29 96 Japan 54 46 95 92 80 Mexico 81 30 69 82 Norway 31 69 8 50 20 Sweden 31 71 5 29 33 Russia 93 39 36 95 Singapore 74 20 48 8 48 South Africa 49 65 63 49 Korea 60 18 39 85 75 Thailand 64 20 34 64 56
    • 26 Tour Guiding Series Cultural change over time • Change is slow and often painful • Shifts away from “traditional values” towards “secular values” • Changes with shift from “survival values” to “self-expression values”
    • 27 Tour Guiding Series
    • 28 Tour Guiding Series So, how do we distinguish? • Relations between people • Motivational orientation • Attitudes toward time • Socio-cultural dimensions
    • 29 Tour Guiding Series Relations between people • Universalism vs. particularism -- a rule- oriented society (a well-developed legal system) vs. a person-oriented society • Individualism vs. communitarianism – the individual is more important than the group or the group is more important than the individual
    • 30 Tour Guiding Series Motivational orientation • Sharply defined roles for men and women vs. similar roles • Uncertainty avoidance – seeking to avoid uncertainty vs. tolerating high uncertainty • Power distance – people feel comfortable with large differences in power among people or they prefer equality
    • 31 Tour Guiding Series Attitudes toward time • Long-term vs. short term orientation – patient about results or not • Sequential vs. synchronic – prefer to do tasks one at a time or comfortable doing several things at once • Inner vs. outer time – preference for working on one’s own schedule or comfortable working on group’s schedule
    • 32 Tour Guiding Series Socio-cultural dimensions • Paternalism – superiors provide guidance, protection, and nurturing while subordinates are loyal and deferential • Fatalism – the belief that it is not possible to control the outcomes of one’s actions, so hard work and long-term plans are not worthwhile
    • 33 Tour Guiding Series Western vs. Non-Western Values • Individualism • Achievement • Equality • Winning • Internal self-control • Pride • Respect for results • Respect competence • Time is money • Collectivism/ group • Modesty • Hierarchy • Harmony • External control • Saving face • Respect for status • Respect elders • Time is life
    • 34 Tour Guiding Series Western vs. Non-Western Values • Action/ doing • Systematic • Tasks • Informal • Assertiveness • Future/ change • Control • Specific/ linear • Verbal • Being/ acceptance • Humanistic • Relationship/ loyalty • Formal • Indirectness • Past/ tradition • Fate • Holistic • Non-verbal
    • 35 Tour Guiding Series Practical culture for you! • Harmony (flexible, cooperative) vs Control/Mastery (firm, assertive) • Relationship (accommodating) vs Task (accomplishment) • Hierarchy (respect, seniority) vs Equality (merit, equal access) • Shame (face saving, external locus of control) vs Guilt (personal accountability)
    • 36 Tour Guiding Series Practical culture for you! • High Context (indirect) vs Low Context (direct, specific) • Ploychronic (multi tasking, non-linear) vs Monochronic (time bound)/ ‘Rubber’ time! • Group Orientation (we-ness) vs Individual (I, personal achievement) • Religious (holistic, spiritual) vs Secular (religion separates from work related issues)
    • 37 Tour Guiding Series What people are like! Americans • linear, fact driven and numbers oriented • impatient and the contract is their central focus Asians • avoid conflict • express opinions indirectly and maintain a face of surface harmony when too direct can be seen as rude
    • 38 Tour Guiding Series What people are like! French • enjoy emphasising distinctions and differences • blunt and logical approach to conflicting points of views that can seem antagonistic to people from other cultures Middle Easterners and Latinos • passionate expression of differences • save face and preserve dignity
    • 39 Tour Guiding Series What people are like! Russians • a great deal of posturing and theatrics
    • 40 Tour Guiding Series Preparing to meet people • Check whether they think like you. • Spend time on non-task sounding matters to establish personal relationships. • Know the differences between your opponent’s social, political and economic systems and yours. • Know how the above differences affect his thinking, authority and negotiating methods.
    • 41 Tour Guiding Series Preparing to meet people • Know your customer’s legal, technical and financial systems • Know how the above will affect our choice of tactics • Know the effects of ethical standards (right, wrong, reasonable) • Know the importance of face saving
    • 42 Tour Guiding Series Preparing to meet people • Recognize the role of status • Ask questions, but don’t put pressure • Avoid using jargon • Summarize and test understanding • Use both verbal and nonverbal techniques to support ideas e.g. Use “ I” language to convey that the speaker accepts responsibility for what he or she is saying
    • 43 Tour Guiding Series Preparing to meet people • Maintain eye contact with others as eye contact communicates sincerity, concern and involvement • Show a relaxed attitude towards time and do not place unnecessary pressure on themselves by creating artificial deadlines
    • 44 Tour Guiding Series