04 theory, research, variables

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04 theory, research, variables

  1. 1. 14-04-2012 1 Research Methodology Dr. NimitChowdhary,Professor © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 2 Saturda y, April 14, 2012 ‘X’ is innocent ‘X ‘ is Guilty
  2. 2. 14-04-2012 2 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 3 Saturday, April 14, 2012  We all operate on basis of theories we hold  A theory is a set of systematically interrelated concepts, definitions, propositions that are advanced to explain and predict phenomena (fact)  Theories tend to be abstract and involve multiple variables  Hypothesis is simple, two-variable propositions involving concrete instances © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 4 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Research  Test theory  Theorize Theory  Suggest a system to researcher to impose on data
  3. 3. 14-04-2012 3 Theory  Concepts  Constructs Research  Variables A concept is a bundle of meanings or characteristics associated with certain events, objects, conditions, situations, etc. Variables accept numerical values for empirical testing and measurement Variable is used synonymously for construct A construct is an image or idea specifically invented or created for a given research and/ or- theory building purpose © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Resear ch Method ology Worksh op p. 6Saturday, April 14, 2012 Theory The abstract statements that make claims about the world and how it work. Research problems are usually stated at a theoretical level Example “poverty leads to poor health”
  4. 4. 14-04-2012 4 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Resear ch Method ology Worksh op p. 7Saturday, April 14, 2012 Concepts The building blocks of theory which are usually abstract and cannot be directly measured  Descriptive/ nominal/ conceptual definition  Operational definition Example “poverty” © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Concept Descriptive definition Operational definition Customer A patron of firm ‘x’ or one who buys products and services from firm ‘x’ One who has purchased at least one third of his family’s need from firm ‘x’ during the last 3 months Year A twelve month period Financial year, April 1 through March 31 Boy A male youth A male of 12-16 years of age Small-scaleunit An industrial undertaking which manufactures some product/s on a small scale An industrial unit with investment in plant and machinery less than 3 crores
  5. 5. 14-04-2012 5  What is ‘rural’ as in rural tourism? © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 9 Saturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Resear ch Method ology Worksh op p. 10Saturday, April 14, 2012 Constructs The phenomenon which point to the existence of the concept Example “poor living conditions” Remember that ‘poverty’ was the concept. ‘Poverty’ is explained as ‘poor living conditions’
  6. 6. 14-04-2012 6 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Resear ch Method ology Worksh op p. 11Saturday, April 14, 2012 Variables The components of the constructs which can be measured Example “provision of sanitary facilities” Construct ‘poor living conditions’ can be construed from a number of ‘measurable’ variables like ‘provision on sanitary facilities’ © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Resear ch Method ology Worksh op p. 12Saturday, April 14, 2012 Value The actual units or methods of measurement of the variables. These are data in their most concrete form Example “number of people per toilet”
  7. 7. 14-04-2012 7 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 13 Saturday, April 14, 2012  Identify variables  Relate variables  Nature of relationship  Degree of relationship  Create a system of variables (Model)  Predict variables © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 14 Saturday, April 14, 2012  Dichotomousvariables  Discrete variables  Continuous variable
  8. 8. 14-04-2012 8 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 15 Saturday, April 14, 2012  Independent variables  Dependent variables © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 16 Saturday, April 14, 2012  A moderating variable is a second independent variable that is included because it is believed to have a significant contributory or contingent effect on the originallystated IV-DV relationship. The introduction of a 4-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV) especially among younger workers (MV)
  9. 9. 14-04-2012 9 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 17 Saturday, April 14, 2012  An almost infinite number of extraneous variables (EV) exist that might conceivably effect a given relationship.Some can be treated as IV or MV, but most must either be assumed or excluded from the study. In routine office work (EV) the introduction of a 4-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV) especially among younger workers (MV) © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 18 Saturday, April 14, 2012  The intervening variables (IVV) are factors that may theoretically affect the observed phenomenonbut cannot be seen, measured, or manipulated; its affects must be inferred from the effects of the independent and the moderator variables on observed phenomenon. The introduction of a 4-day week will lead to higher productivity by increasing job satisfaction (IVV).
  10. 10. 14-04-2012 10 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 19 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Proposition (Problem) is a statement about concepts that may be judged as true or false if it refers to observable phenomenon. When a propositionis formulated for empirical testing, we call it a hypothesis. As a declarativestatement, a hypothesis is of a tentative and conjectural nature.  Is an assumptionabout relations between variables  Is a predictive statement that relates an independent variable to a dependent variable.  Are tentative, intelligent guesses as to the solutionof the problem © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 20 Saturday, April 14, 2012
  11. 11. 14-04-2012 11  Is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete terms what you expect to happen in the study  Is an assumptionabout the populationof study  Delimitsthe area of research and keeps the researcher on right track © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 21 Saturday, April 14, 2012

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