02 what is research
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

02 what is research

on

  • 823 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
823
Views on SlideShare
823
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
33
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

02 what is research 02 what is research Document Transcript

  • 14-04-2012 Research Methodology Dr. Nimit Chowdhary, Professor What is research? The scientific method Research and theory Conceptual and theoretical models Research process© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 2 Saturday, April 14, 2012 1
  • 14-04-2012…the systematic investigation into thestudy of materials, sources, etc. in order toestablish facts and reach new conclusions;an endeavour to discover new or collateold facts etc. by the scientific study of asubject or by a course of criticalinvestigation…© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 3 Saturday, April 14, 2012Research is a procedure by which weattempt to find systematically, and withthe support of demonstrable fact, theanswer to a question or the resolution of aproblem.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 4 Saturday, April 14, 2012 2
  • 14-04-2012…the systematic, controlled, empirical andcritical investigation of hypotheticalpropositions about presumed relationsamong natural phenomena…© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 5 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Systematic and critical investigation into the phenomenon Not a mere compilation, but a purposive investigation With an aim of either describing, interpreting or explaining a phenomenon© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 6 Saturday, April 14, 2012 3
  • 14-04-2012 Scientific-follows logical reasoning Objective- possible to test validity of measuring tools and conclusions reached Based on observable experience and empirical evidence Directed at finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 7 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Lead to development of generalization, principles or theories Not to arrive at answers those are pleasing but rather one those will stand up to test of criticism© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 8 Saturday, April 14, 2012 4
  • 14-04-2012Epistemology is concerned with how we knowthings and what we can regard as acceptableknowledge of discipline.There are two ways one can acquire knowledgeabout things/ phenomenon Through sensory experience Through reasoning© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 9 Saturday, April 14, 2012Knowledge about individuals and phenomenaon a spectrum ranging from scientific methodsto human subjectivity can have three standpoints© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 10 Saturday, April 14, 2012 5
  • 14-04-2012Positivism An objective approach that can test theories and establish scientific laws. It aims to establish causes and effectsInterpretivism The recognition that subjective meanings play a crucial role in social actions. It aims to reveal interpretations and meaningsRealism That generalizations should be avoided. General structures divorced from the specific event or situation and context of the research and researcher are not tenable.Saturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 11Ontology is about the theory of social entitiesand is concerned with what there exists to beinvestigated. Objectivism Constructionism© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 12 Saturday, April 14, 2012 6
  • 14-04-2012 The belief that social phenomenon andtheir meaning have an existence that is not dependent on social actors. They are facts that have an independent existence.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Saturday, April 14, 2012 …the belief that social phenomenon are in a constant state of change because they are totally reliant on social interactions as they take place.Even the account of researchers is subject to these interactions,therefore social knowledge can only be intermediate.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 14 Saturday, April 14, 2012 7
  • 14-04-2012“…a set of systematically interrelated concepts,definitions, and propositions that are advancedto explain and predict phenomenon (facts).” -Kerlinger© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 15 Saturday, April 14, 2012Assumptions …un-testable premise about theand ideas nature of selected aspects of social life…Frames of …identify the major dimensionsreference of social life that will be subjected to empirical scrutiny…Saturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 16 8
  • 14-04-2012Concepts …are abstractions, e.g., group, motivations, democracy…Variables …are relational units of analysis that can assume designated set of values, e.g., education level, income, etc.Propositions …are statements between or among variables…Saturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 17 Research initiates theory Research tests an existing theory Reformulation of an existing theory Research refocuses theory Research clarifies theory Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 18 Saturday, April 14, 2012 9
  • 14-04-2012 Suggesting a problem for study Giving a hypothesis to be tested Providing a conceptual model for delimiting the scope of the study Selection of variables or identification of classes of data to be collected Making research finding intelligible Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 19 Saturday, April 14, 2012“…is a simplified systematic conceptual structure of interrelated elements in some schematic form”…it describes relationships between and among concepts and variables… Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 20 Saturday, April 14, 2012 10
  • 14-04-2012Example“The organizational effectiveness in a R&Dorganisation is determined by five sets ofvariables, viz., macroclimate (organizationalclimate), microclimate (job climate), personalityof scientists, and their attitudinal andperformance variables.”Pandey, Subrata (1986), A study of organizational and individual characteristics in R & Dorganizations, unpublished thesis, Bangalore: Indian Institute of Science Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 21 Saturday, April 14, 2012“The scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical process ofreasoning”Research is a scientific endeavour. It involvesscientific method. Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 22 Saturday, April 14, 2012 11
  • 14-04-2012 Reliance on empirical evidence Use of relevant concepts Commitment to objectivity Ethical neutrality Generalization Verifiability Logical reasoning process Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 23 Saturday, April 14, 2012 Define the problem Establish hypothesis as to causes/ explanations/ solutions of the problems Collect the data Analyze the data to test the hypothesis and draw inferences Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 24 Saturday, April 14, 2012 12
  • 14-04-2012 Study theoretical background Review your subject Investigate problem Write proposal to Gain approval to area to find problem area to define a explain the research continue area research problem project and its timing The Research Investigate relevant research methods Process Examine ethical Walliman, Nicholas (2006). Social science issues research methods. New Delhi: Sage Publications Carry out detailed Explore methods for Carry out more Disseminate results. research- data data collection and background research Indicate areas that collection and analysis. Check to refine research need further research analysis ethical issues problem Report actions and Describe why and how Write up background results and draw research methods to research conclusions used Saturda y, April 14, © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 25 2012 What data are required to answer question? LiteratureResearch Research Data Data Answer Topic Design area questions collection analysis questions Context Pre-empirical Empirical stage stage Simplified model of research Punch, Keith, F. (2003). Survey research-the basics. New Delhi: Sage Publications Saturda y, April 14, © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 26 2012 13
  • 14-04-2012 Quantitative research (tend to measure) Qualitative research (tend to describe) Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 27 Saturday, April 14, 2012Orientation Uses a deductive approach to(Approach to test theoriesreasoning) (general to specific)Epistemology Is based on a positivist(How we know approach inherent in the naturalabout things) sciencesOntology Objectivist in that social reality(Objectivity vs. is regarded as objective factsubjectivity)Saturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 28 14
  • 14-04-2012Orientation Uses an inductive approach to(Approach to generate theoriesreasoning) (specific to general)Epistemology It rejects positivism by relying(How we know on individual interpretation ofabout things) social realityOntology Constructionist, in that social(Objectivity vs. reality is seen as a constantlysubjectivity) shifting product or perceptionSaturday, April 14, 2012 © Dr. Nimit Chowdhary Research Methodology Workshop p. 29 To describe To explain and evaluate To compare To correlate To act, intervene and change Research Methodology Workshop p.© Dr. Nimit Chowdhary 30 Saturday, April 14, 2012 15