introduction to environment

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introduction to environment

  1. 1. WE AND OUR ENVIRONMENT
  2. 2. ENVIRONMENT  ENVIRONMENT IS THAT WHICH ENCOMPASSES ALL LIVING AND NON-LIVING THINGS OCCURRING NATURALLY ON EARTH.
  3. 3. ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENT BIOTIC FACTORS ABIOTIC FACTORS FACTORS microbes , plants, soil , water , air, animals temperature & human being
  4. 4. EARTH: AN ENORMOUS ECOSYSTEM Three basic principle of ecology: 1. EVERYTHING IS RELATED TO EVERYTHING ELSE.
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES 2. EVERYTHING MUST GO SOMEWHERE. YOU CANNOT JUST THROW ANYTHING ANYWAY.  ONCE CREATED IT HAS TO BE DESTROYED IN A PROPER WAY.
  6. 6. ENVIRONMENT PROCESSES 3. NATURE KNOWS BEST. DISRUPTING ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES.
  7. 7. FOOD CHAIN
  8. 8. HOW DO WE AFFECT ENVIRONMENT ? URBANISATION DEFORESTATION AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE MINING SOLID WASTE INDUSTRIALISATION
  9. 9. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION  POLLUTION IS THE INTRODUCTION OF CONTAMINANTS INTO THE ENVIRONMENT THAT CAUSES INSTABILITY TO THE ECOSYSTEM.
  10. 10. TYPES OF POLLUTION  AIR POLLUTION WATER POLLUTION SOIL POLLUTION NOISE POLLUTION RADIATION POLLUTION
  11. 11. EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS
  12. 12. FACTORS OF POLLUTANTS AFFECTING HEALTH  NATURE OF POLLUTANTS  CONCENTRATION OF POLLUTANTS  STATE OF HEALTH OF RECEPTORS  AGE GROUP OF RECEPTORS
  13. 13. WHERE DO THEY COME FROM? POLLUTANTS ARE GENERATED DUE TO HUMAN ACTIVITIES.
  14. 14. EXPOSURE TO POLLUTANTS A ir p o llu tio n S e ttle m e n t D ire ct in ha la tio n R a in a n im a ls Food G ro u n d p o llu tio n d rin kin g w ate r & fish W a te r p o llu tio n P la n ts
  15. 15. ROUTES OF EXPOSURE Inhalation Ingestion Skin contact
  16. 16. HEALTH EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS
  17. 17. GLOBAL EFFECTS OF POLLUTION
  18. 18. SOLID WASTE: A MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM
  19. 19. OVERVIEW OF SOLID WASTE IN KATHMANDU THE TOTAL WASTE GENERATED IS 450TON/DAY. TYYPES QUANTITY/TON OF WASTE household 52% business 20% ORGANIC 252 industrial 3% INORGANIC 135 institutional 9% TOXIC 9 others 16% OTHERS 54 Source:KMC,2001/2004
  20. 20. DEALING WITH SOLID WASTE SOLID WASTE POLLUTION WASTE MANAGEMENT PREVENTION THROWAWAY OR HIGH LOW WASTE WASTE APPROACH APPROACH BURYING BURNING 3R-PRINCIPLE
  21. 21. INCINERATION  COMBUSTION OF WASTE: REDUCES WASTE BY ABOUT 70%.  HEAVY METALS LIKE MERCURY, LEAD CADMIUM etc.  HARMFUL GASES LIKE DIOXINS, REMAIN UNDESTROYED. FURANS etc. ARE PRODUCED.
  22. 22. OPEN DUMPING  CURRENT PRACTICE OF DISPOSAL IN NEPAL.  CHANCES OF EPIDEMICS.  WATER POLLUTION BOTH GROUND AND SURFACE.  EUTROPHICATION
  23. 23. 3-R PRINCIPLE REDUCE. THINGS THAT LAST LONGER,THINGS THAT CAN BE USED MORE THAN ONCE. REUSE POLYTHENE BAGS,CLOTHING,SHOES,CONTAINERS ETC. RECYCLE  MANY ITEMS SUCH AS PLASTICS,PAPER,CANS CAN BE RECYCLED TO USE AGAIN.
  24. 24. COMPOSTING AEROBICALLY DECOMPOSED REMNANTS OF ORGANIC MATTER. USED MAINLY IN AGRICULTURE AS SOIL CONDITIONER AND FERTILIZER  DAILY 252 TONS OF ORGANIC WASTE IS GENERATED IN KMC.
  25. 25. WHAT CAN WE DO?? ADOPT THE 3’R PRINCIPLE. ENCOURAGE THE USE OF COMPOST RATHER THAN CHEMICAL FERTILIZER. RAISE AWARENESS AMONG THE PUBLIC THROUGH VARIOUS TRAINING AND INTERACTIVE PROGRAM.

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