0
Percona Xtrabackup
Nilnandan Joshi
Support Engineer
Percona LLC 2014
www.percona.com
Introduction

Percona Xtrabackup provides a fully open-
source, free, high-performance, non-blocking
back...
www.percona.com
Features
Full Binary Backups Incremental backups Open Source (GPL)
Online (non-blocking)* Parallel backups...
www.percona.com
Compatibility

Versions <= 2.0 are compatible with :
Oracle MySQL 5.0, 5.1, 5.5 and 5.6
Equivalent versio...
www.percona.com
xtrabackup vs. innobackupex

Percona XtraBackup includes two main
executables

xtrabackup is the low lev...
www.percona.com
xtrabackup vs. innobackupex
www.percona.com
Installation
The most straightforward way is installing the
Percona apt or yum repositories

Then install...
www.percona.com
Requirements and Limitations

Only fully supported on Linux machines

innobackupex is a Perl script

Pa...
www.percona.com
How Percona XtraBackup
Works: Full Backup
www.percona.com
How Percona XtraBackup
Works: Full Restore
www.percona.com
Command Line Execution

Minimal options for a full backup:
# innobackupex /path/to/backup/
• Actual backu...
www.percona.com
What it looks like
root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:/var/lib/mysql# sudo innobackupex
--user=root --password=root /...
www.percona.com
Target Directory
root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~# ls -al /home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52-04
total 77868
...
www.percona.com
Files in Target Directory

Hierarchy of files and directories mirroring the original
database structure.
...
www.percona.com
Preparation Phase

Before the backup directory can be used, we must:

Make sure that the InnoDB tablespa...
www.percona.com
Preparation Phase (cont)

Only xtrabackup/innobackupex and the backup
directory are needed

It can be do...
www.percona.com
Command Line Execution

The simplest form:
$ innobackupex --apply-log
/media/backups/2017-07-08_13-22-12
...
www.percona.com
How It Looks Like
nilnandan@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~/backup$ sudo innobackupex --apply-log 2014-07-
09_13-52-0...
www.percona.com
Restore

After --apply-log, we have a consistent full raw
backup

We can just move it back to the datadi...
www.percona.com
Copy Back

The integrated command to restore a backup is:
# innobackupex --copy-back /media/backups/2017-...
www.percona.com
What It Looks Like
root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~# sudo innobackupex --copy-back
/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07...
www.percona.com
Move Back

As an alternative to --copy-back, we can also do:
# innobackupex --move-back /media/backups/20...
www.percona.com
Restoring Permissions

After restore, as file permissions are preserved, you
will probably have to fix fi...
www.percona.com
Incremental Backup

Differential & Incremental Backups

Differential backup: saves only the difference i...
www.percona.com
Incremental Backup(cont..)

Differential and incremental backups work the
same way with xtrabackup:

Eve...
www.percona.com
Incremental Backup(cont..)
www.percona.com
Incremental Backup(cont..)

Restoration of Incremental Backups

On prepare time, the new pages have to b...
www.percona.com
Incremental Backup(cont..)
www.percona.com
Partial Backups

When using xtrabackup (or innobackupex), we can
filter out some of the tables, effective...
www.percona.com
Partial Backups (cont..)

Command Line Options for Segmented Backups:

--include : Matches the fully qua...
www.percona.com
Partial Backups (cont..)

Examples

Backup only the test database:

# innobackupex --include=^test[.] /...
www.percona.com
Streaming

Xtrabackup allows the streaming of the backup files
to the UNIX standard output

This allows ...
www.percona.com
Streaming (cont..)

The stream option accepts two parameters:

--stream=tar
It sends all files to the st...
www.percona.com
Streaming (cont..)

Using tar:
# innobackupex --stream=tar /tmp > backup.tar
# innobackupex --stream=tar ...
www.percona.com
Streaming (cont..)

Using xbstream
# innobackupex --stream=xbstream /tmp > 
backup.xbstream

To extract,...
www.percona.com
Compression

We can use --compress to produce quicklz-
compressed files:
# innobackupex --compress /media...
www.percona.com
Compression and xbstream

The --compress flag can be combined with
xbstream (not with tar):
# innobackupe...
www.percona.com
Parallel Copy and Compression

If using xbstream, we can use --parallel to archive
several files at the s...
www.percona.com
Remote Backups

xtrabackup can send automatically the backup files
to a remote host by redirecting the ou...
www.percona.com
Throttling Remote Backups

pv (pipe viewer) utility can be useful for both
monitoring and limiting the ba...
www.percona.com
Compact Backups

In order to reduce backup size, we can skip the copy
of secondary index pages:
# innobac...
www.percona.com
Preparing Compact Backups

The downside of compact backups is that the
prepare phase will take longer, as...
www.percona.com
Rebuilding Indexes

The --rebuild-threads option can be used to speed up
the recreation of the keys, by d...
www.percona.com
Encrypted Backups

Xtrabackup has support for symmetric encryption
through the libgcrypt library for both...
www.percona.com
Encrypted Backups (cont..)

We can now use the previous value of iv as our
encryption key:
$ innobackupex...
www.percona.com
Speeding up Encryption

Parallel encryption is possible by encrypting more
than one file at a time (--par...
www.percona.com
Decrypting Backups

Before preparing it, the backup must be unarchived (if
xbstream was used) and decrypt...
www.percona.com
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
PERFORMANCE
Locking Issues

By default, innobackupex will lock the tables (FTWRL)
dur...
www.percona.com
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
PERFORMANCE
File Not Found
2017-07-08 12:56:56 7f0dfe4737e0 InnoDB: Operating system e...
www.percona.com
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
PERFORMANCE
Permission Denied
InnoDB: read-write can't be opened in ./ibdata1 mode
xtr...
www.percona.com
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
PERFORMANCE
MySQL Does Not Start After
Recovery
Starting MySQL server... FAILED
The se...
www.percona.com
TROUBLESHOOTING AND
PERFORMANCE
The Backup Takes Too Long

As MySQL performs physical backups, the speed
...
nilnandan.joshi@percona.com
@nilnandan
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Percona xtrabackup - MySQL Meetup @ Mumbai

1,448

Published on

Its related to Percona utilities.

Published in: Software
1 Comment
6 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,448
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
60
Comments
1
Likes
6
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Percona xtrabackup - MySQL Meetup @ Mumbai"

  1. 1. Percona Xtrabackup Nilnandan Joshi Support Engineer Percona LLC 2014
  2. 2. www.percona.com Introduction  Percona Xtrabackup provides a fully open- source, free, high-performance, non-blocking backup system for InnoDB or XtraDB tables  It can also backup MyISAM, Archive, Merge, and other SQL-level objects  It is a reliable, widely-used alternative to Oracle's MySQL Enterprise Backup
  3. 3. www.percona.com Features Full Binary Backups Incremental backups Open Source (GPL) Online (non-blocking)* Parallel backups & compression Cost: Free InnoDB & MyISAM Streaming backups MySQL compatibility Compressed backups Compact backups MySQL Forks' support Point-in-time recovery support Export individual tables; restore to a different server MySQL replication & Galera support Incremental backups LRU backups Community Help Throttling OS buffer optimizations Commercial Support Partial Backups Encrypted backups Easy migration
  4. 4. www.percona.com Compatibility  Versions <= 2.0 are compatible with : Oracle MySQL 5.0, 5.1, 5.5 and 5.6 Equivalent versions of Percona Server, MariaDB, and Drizzle  Version 2.1 is compatible with: Oracle MySQL 5.1 (plugin version [1] ), 5.5, 5.6 Equivalent versions of Percona Server, MariaDB, and Drizzle [1] The InnoDB Engine plugin 1.0 is distributed -but not enabled- by default. See: http://dev.mysql.com/doc/innodb-plugin/1.0/en/innodb-plugin-installation.html
  5. 5. www.percona.com xtrabackup vs. innobackupex  Percona XtraBackup includes two main executables  xtrabackup is the low level binary that handles the creation and consistency checking of InnoDB backups.  innobackupex is a higher-level Perl wrapper for xtrabackup and is also responsible for the rest of the operations, including the backup of other engines  You usually want to use innobackupex
  6. 6. www.percona.com xtrabackup vs. innobackupex
  7. 7. www.percona.com Installation The most straightforward way is installing the Percona apt or yum repositories  Then install the package with: - yum install percona-xtrabackup - aptitude update && aptitude install percona- xtrabackup  Other installation options can be found at http://www.percona.com/downloads/XtraBack up/
  8. 8. www.percona.com Requirements and Limitations  Only fully supported on Linux machines  innobackupex is a Perl script  Package should take care of all dependencies (Perl interpreter, mysql driver, other libraries)  Local access to the MySQL datadir is required  READ, WRITE and EXECUTE filesystem privileges are needed  This makes xtrabackup incompatible with RDS or some web hosting providers
  9. 9. www.percona.com How Percona XtraBackup Works: Full Backup
  10. 10. www.percona.com How Percona XtraBackup Works: Full Restore
  11. 11. www.percona.com Command Line Execution  Minimal options for a full backup: # innobackupex /path/to/backup/ • Actual backup is stored in a timestamped subdirectory. • It reads the datadir and innodb paths from my.cnf • A more complete set of options: # innobackupex --host=localhost --user=root --password=secret /tmp
  12. 12. www.percona.com What it looks like root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:/var/lib/mysql# sudo innobackupex --user=root --password=root /home/nilnandan/backup InnoDB Backup Utility v1.5.1-xtrabackup; Copyright 2003, 2009 Innobase Oy and Percona LLC and/or its affiliates 2009-2013. All Rights Reserved. This software is published under the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991. Get the latest version of Percona XtraBackup, documentation, and help resources: http://www.percona.com/xb/p 140709 13:52:04 innobackupex: Connecting to MySQL server with DSN 'dbi:mysql:;mysql_read_default_group=xtrabackup' as 'root' (using password: YES). 140709 13:52:04 innobackupex: Connected to MySQL server 140709 13:52:04 innobackupex: Executing a version check against the server... 140709 13:52:04 innobackupex: Done.
  13. 13. www.percona.com Target Directory root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~# ls -al /home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52-04 total 77868 drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 Jul 9 14:28 . drwxrwxr-x 4 nilnandan nilnandan 4096 Jul 9 14:21 .. -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 356 Jul 9 13:52 backup-my.cnf drwx------ 2 root root 4096 Jul 9 13:52 dbtest -rw-r----- 1 root root 79691776 Jul 9 13:52 ibdata1 drwx------ 2 root root 4096 Jul 9 13:52 mysql drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 4096 Jul 9 13:52 performance_schema drwx------ 2 root root 4096 Jul 9 13:52 test -rw-r----- 1 root root 95 Jul 9 13:52 xtrabackup_checkpoints -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 528 Jul 9 13:52 xtrabackup_info -rw-r----- 1 root root 2560 Jul 9 13:52 xtrabackup_logfile root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~#
  14. 14. www.percona.com Files in Target Directory  Hierarchy of files and directories mirroring the original database structure.  backup-my.cnf: Not a backup of the server configuration. It only contains the minimal InnoDB settings at the time the backup to execute the --apply- log phase  xtrabackup_info: Contains all informations about xtrabackup binary, server version, start and end time of backup, binlog position etc.  xtrabackup_checkpoints: Metadata about the backup (type of backup, lsn, etc.)  xtrabackup_logfile: Data needed for the --apply-log phase
  15. 15. www.percona.com Preparation Phase  Before the backup directory can be used, we must:  Make sure that the InnoDB tablespaces have consistent,non-corrupt data  Create new transaction logs  innobackupex executes xtrabackup twice:  First, to do a controlled crash recovery, applying the log entries with xtrabackup's embedded InnoDB. This redoes all written committed transactions and undoes uncommitted ones.  Second, to create the empty logs
  16. 16. www.percona.com Preparation Phase (cont)  Only xtrabackup/innobackupex and the backup directory are needed  It can be done on different machine than the original server (we have the xtrabackup binary and the innodb configuration parameters)  Generally, you do it just before restore. If you only do full backups and want to minimize the MTTR (Mean Time To Recover), you can prepare immediately after backup
  17. 17. www.percona.com Command Line Execution  The simplest form: $ innobackupex --apply-log /media/backups/2017-07-08_13-22-12  You may specify a memory parameter: $ innobackupex –apply-log --use-memory=4G /media/backups/2017-07-08_13-22-12  this increases the available buffer pool for the recovery phase (100M by default), to improve performance
  18. 18. www.percona.com How It Looks Like nilnandan@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~/backup$ sudo innobackupex --apply-log 2014-07- 09_13-52-04 InnoDB Backup Utility v1.5.1-xtrabackup; Copyright 2003, 2009 Innobase Oy and Percona LLC and/or its affiliates 2009-2013. All Rights Reserved. This software is published under the GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE Version 2, June 1991. Get the latest version of Percona XtraBackup, documentation, and help resources: http://www.percona.com/xb/p IMPORTANT: Please check that the apply-log run completes successfully. At the end of a successful apply-log run innobackupex prints "completed OK!". 140710 10:06:57 innobackupex: Starting ibbackup with command: xtrabackup --defaults-file="/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52-04/backup-my.cnf" --defaults-group="mysqld" --prepare --target-dir=/home/nilnandan/backup/2014- 07-09_13-52-04 --tmpdir=/tmp
  19. 19. www.percona.com Restore  After --apply-log, we have a consistent full raw backup  We can just move it back to the datadir with standard OS commands once the server is shut down  As a physical backup, restoration is as fast as you can copy the directory contents to the local filesystem  There are specific commands for restoration in XtraBackup
  20. 20. www.percona.com Copy Back  The integrated command to restore a backup is: # innobackupex --copy-back /media/backups/2017-07- 08_13-22-12  It complains if the datadir, as read from the config file, is not empty [1] (it will not overwrite existing data)  Only partial restores can be done to a running server  xtrabackup_* files are not needed [1] We can override this behavior with the option --force-non-empty- directories , but it will never overwrite existent files
  21. 21. www.percona.com What It Looks Like root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~# sudo innobackupex --copy-back /home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52-04/ ... innobackupex: Starting to copy files in '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07- 09_13-52-04' innobackupex: back to original data directory '/var/lib/mysql' innobackupex: Copying '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52- 04/xtrabackup_info' to '/var/lib/mysql/xtrabackup_info' innobackupex: Creating directory '/var/lib/mysql/mysql' innobackupex: Copying '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52- 04/mysql/time_zone_leap_second.frm' to ... innobackupex: Starting to copy InnoDB log files innobackupex: in '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52-04' innobackupex: back to original InnoDB log directory '/var/lib/mysql' innobackupex: Copying '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52- 04/ib_logfile1' to '/var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile1' innobackupex: Copying '/home/nilnandan/backup/2014-07-09_13-52- 04/ib_logfile0' to '/var/lib/mysql/ib_logfile0' innobackupex: Finished copying back files. 140710 11:04:12 innobackupex: completed OK! root@nilnandan-Dell-XPS:~#
  22. 22. www.percona.com Move Back  As an alternative to --copy-back, we can also do: # innobackupex --move-back /media/backups/2017-07- 08_13-22-12  This may be faster or more convenient if the backup is already on the same partition or don't have enough free space
  23. 23. www.percona.com Restoring Permissions  After restore, as file permissions are preserved, you will probably have to fix file ownership: # chown -R mysql:mysql /var/lib/mysql  If MySQL cannot write to the data directory or some of it files, it will refuse to start
  24. 24. www.percona.com Incremental Backup  Differential & Incremental Backups  Differential backup: saves only the difference in the data since the last full backup  Incremental backup: saves only the difference in the data since the last backup (full or another incremental)  Xtrabackup can perform both, which can lead to an important save in space (and potentially, time), specially if the backups are very frequent or the database is very static
  25. 25. www.percona.com Incremental Backup(cont..)  Differential and incremental backups work the same way with xtrabackup:  Every page stores the Log Sequence Number (LSN) when it was last changed  Only pages that have a higher LSN than the base backup (full or incremental) are copied
  26. 26. www.percona.com Incremental Backup(cont..)
  27. 27. www.percona.com Incremental Backup(cont..)  Restoration of Incremental Backups  On prepare time, the new pages have to be applied in order to the full backup before restore  This is the reason why you want to wait to fully apply the log just before restore time  Uncommitted transactions must not be undone, as they may have finished on a subsequent incremental backup  Intermediate backups have to apply changes with the option --redo-only
  28. 28. www.percona.com Incremental Backup(cont..)
  29. 29. www.percona.com Partial Backups  When using xtrabackup (or innobackupex), we can filter out some of the tables, effectively copying only some databases or tables  Two main restrictions apply for InnoDB tables:  Original database must use innodb_file_per_table, as xtrabackup works at filesystem level  Recovering individual tables is only possible for MySQL 5.6. Previous versions require Percona XtraDB extensions with tablespace import enabled
  30. 30. www.percona.com Partial Backups (cont..)  Command Line Options for Segmented Backups:  --include : Matches the fully qualified name (database.table) against a regular expression  --databases : Matches a list of databases (or tables) separated by spaces.  --tables-file : Matches a list of tables, one per line, stored on the specified file
  31. 31. www.percona.com Partial Backups (cont..)  Examples  Backup only the test database:  # innobackupex --include=^test[.] /data/backups  Backup all except the mysql database*: $ mysql -e "SELECT concat(table_schema, '.', table_name) from information_schema.tables WHERE table_schema NOT IN ('mysql', 'performance_schema', 'information_schema')" > /tmp/tables  # innobackupex --tables-file=/tmp/tables /data/backups
  32. 32. www.percona.com Streaming  Xtrabackup allows the streaming of the backup files to the UNIX standard output  This allows to post-process them or send them to a remote location while the backup is ongoing
  33. 33. www.percona.com Streaming (cont..)  The stream option accepts two parameters:  --stream=tar It sends all files to the standard output in the tar archive format (single file without compression)  --stream=xbstream The standard output will using the new included xbstream format, which allows simultaneous compression, encryption and parallelization  A temporal file path is still required
  34. 34. www.percona.com Streaming (cont..)  Using tar: # innobackupex --stream=tar /tmp > backup.tar # innobackupex --stream=tar /tmp | bzip2 - > backup.tar.bz2  To extract, the tar -i option (ignore zeros) must be used: # tar -xivf backup.tar # tar -jxif backup.tar.bz2
  35. 35. www.percona.com Streaming (cont..)  Using xbstream # innobackupex --stream=xbstream /tmp > backup.xbstream  To extract, use the xbstream binary provided with Percona Xtrabackup: # xbstream -x < backup.xbstream -C /root
  36. 36. www.percona.com Compression  We can use --compress to produce quicklz- compressed files: # innobackupex --compress /media/backups  To decompress, we can use --decompress or qpress* to decompress the individual .qp files manually: # innobackupex --decompress /media/backups/2017-07-08_13-22-12 # find . -name "*.qp" -execdir qpress -d {} . ;
  37. 37. www.percona.com Compression and xbstream  The --compress flag can be combined with xbstream (not with tar): # innobackupex --compress --stream=xbstream /tmp > /media/backups/backup.xbstream  Before preparation, we must use first xbstream, then decompress: # xbstream -x -C /media/backups < backup.xbstream # innobackupex --decompress /media/backups
  38. 38. www.percona.com Parallel Copy and Compression  If using xbstream, we can use --parallel to archive several files at the same time: # innobackupex --parallel=4 --stream=xbstream /tmp > /media/backups/backup.tar  If we are using compression, we can parallelize the process for each file with –compress-threads # innobackupex --compress --compress-threads=8 --stream=xbstream /tmp > /media/backups/backup.tar
  39. 39. www.percona.com Remote Backups  xtrabackup can send automatically the backup files to a remote host by redirecting the output to applications like ssh or netcat: # innobackupex --stream=tar /tmp | ssh user@host "cat - > /media/backups/backup.tar" # ssh user@host "( nc -l 9999 > /media/backups/backup.tar & )" && innobackupex --stream=tar /tmp | nc host 9999
  40. 40. www.percona.com Throttling Remote Backups  pv (pipe viewer) utility can be useful for both monitoring and limiting the bandwidth of the copy process  The following limits the transmission to 10MB/s: # innobackupex --stream=tar ./ | pv -q -L10m | ssh user@desthost "cat - > /media/backups/backup.tar"
  41. 41. www.percona.com Compact Backups  In order to reduce backup size, we can skip the copy of secondary index pages: # innobackupex --compact /media/backups  The space saved will depend on the size of the secondary indexes. For example: #backup size without --compact 2.0G 2018-02-01_10-18-38 #backup size taken with --compact option 1.4G 2018-02-01_10-29-48
  42. 42. www.percona.com Preparing Compact Backups  The downside of compact backups is that the prepare phase will take longer, as the secondary keys have to be regenerated ( --rebuild-indexes ): # cat xtrabackup_checkpoints backup_type = full-backuped from_lsn = 0 to_lsn = 9541454813 last_lsn = 9541454813 compact = 1 # innobackupex --apply-log --rebuild-indexes /media/backups/2017-07-08_13-22-12
  43. 43. www.percona.com Rebuilding Indexes  The --rebuild-threads option can be used to speed up the recreation of the keys, by doing it in parallel:  # innobackupex --apply-log --rebuild-indexes --rebuild-threads=8 /media/backups/2017-07-08_13- 22-12  Rebuilding indexes has the side effect of defragmenting them, as they are done in order. We can rebuild regular full-backups, too.
  44. 44. www.percona.com Encrypted Backups  Xtrabackup has support for symmetric encryption through the libgcrypt library for both local and xbstream backups  Before using encryption, a key must be generated. For example, to create an SHA256 key:  # openssl enc -aes-256-cbc -pass pass:mypass -P -md sha1 salt=9C8CE740FD0FE6AD key=0A632731C0EABA6131B6683068E04629524FC8F C1E0F69037D5ED03AF126BD0B iv =03E872849A8DA83647A5FCEFDF1C68F2 * Please note that specifying passwords on the command line input is considered insecure.
  45. 45. www.percona.com Encrypted Backups (cont..)  We can now use the previous value of iv as our encryption key: $ innobackupex --encrypt=AES256 --encrypt- key="03E872849A8DA83647A5FCEFDF1C68F2" /data/backups  Options: --encryption : Defines the algorithm to be used (supports AES128, AES192 and AES256) --encrypt-key : Defines the encryption key to use directly on the command line. --encrypt-key-file : Defines the encryption key by pointing to a file that contains it. This is recommended over the encrypt-key option
  46. 46. www.percona.com Speeding up Encryption  Parallel encryption is possible by encrypting more than one file at a time (--parallel) and using more than one thread for each file (--encrypt-threads): # innobackupex --encrypt=AES256 --encryption-key-file=/media/backups/keyfile --stream=xbstream --encrypt-threads=4 /tmp > /media/backups/backup.xbstream  We can also change the buffer for each encryption thread with --encrypt-chunk-size (default 64K)
  47. 47. www.percona.com Decrypting Backups  Before preparing it, the backup must be unarchived (if xbstream was used) and decrypted. We can use --decrypt or do it for each individual .xbscript file using xbscript (included with xtrabackup): # innobackupex --decrypt=AES256 --encrypt-key="A1EDC73815467C083B0869508406637E" /data/backups/2013-08-01_08-31-35/ # for i in `find . -iname "*.xbcrypt"`; do xbcrypt -d --encrypt-key-file=/media/backups/filekey --encrypt-algo=AES256 < $i > $(dirname $i)/$(basename $i .xbcrypt) && rm $i; done  --parallel can speed up the process as well
  48. 48. www.percona.com TROUBLESHOOTING AND PERFORMANCE Locking Issues  By default, innobackupex will lock the tables (FTWRL) during the last phase of the backup  You can use --no-lock if you are only backing up InnoDB tables and no DDL are executing on that last Phase*  You can use --no-lock if you backup other engines if no DDLs are executed, and non-innodb tables are not modified (e.g. users are created on the mysql database)*  You can use --rsync to minimize the copy time when locked * Please note that --no-lock also makes impossible to obtain a reliable binary log coordinates.
  49. 49. www.percona.com TROUBLESHOOTING AND PERFORMANCE File Not Found 2017-07-08 12:56:56 7f0dfe4737e0 InnoDB: Operating system error number 2 in a file operation. InnoDB: The error means the system cannot find the path specified. 2017-07-08 12:56:56 7f0dfe4737e0 InnoDB: File name ./ibdata1 2017-07-08 12:56:56 7f0dfe4737e0 InnoDB: File operation call: 'open' returned OS error 71. 2017-07-08 12:56:56 7f0dfe4737e0 InnoDB: Cannot continue operation. innobackupex: Error: ibbackup child process has died at /usr/bin/ innobackupex line 389.  Set a correct datadir option on /etc/my.cnf
  50. 50. www.percona.com TROUBLESHOOTING AND PERFORMANCE Permission Denied InnoDB: read-write can't be opened in ./ibdata1 mode xtrabackup: Could not open or create data files. [...] xtrabackup: error: xb_data_files_init() failed witherror code 1000 innobackupex: Error: ibbackup child process has died at /usr/bin/ innobackupex line 389. innobackupex: Error: Failed to create backup directory /backups/ 2017-07-08_12-19-01: Permission denied at /usr/bin/innobackupex line 389.  Use the Linux root user or any other account with read/write permissions on datadir and on target-dir
  51. 51. www.percona.com TROUBLESHOOTING AND PERFORMANCE MySQL Does Not Start After Recovery Starting MySQL server... FAILED The server quit without updating PID file  Did you change file permissions of the files to the mysql user?  Did you remember to apply the log before restart? Failing to do so can also corrupt the backup.  Did you restore an appropriate my.cnf file? Previous versions of MySQL (< 5.6) do not start if transaction log files have a different size than specified/default
  52. 52. www.percona.com TROUBLESHOOTING AND PERFORMANCE The Backup Takes Too Long  As MySQL performs physical backups, the speed should be close to to a filesystem copy. If IO impact is not a concern, we can speed it up by:  Using parallelization ( --parallel , --compression- threads , --encrypt-threads , --rebuild-threads )  Using compression ( --compress ) if the extra CPU compensates the lower bandwidth required  Using incremental backups (specially with Percona extensions) to perform rolling full backups
  53. 53. nilnandan.joshi@percona.com @nilnandan
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×