The Three Stages of Labor and
Delivery are the…
The first stage is referred to as the dilation
stage. This is when the uterine muscle
contracts strongly to expel the fetus. During
this process the fetus presses on the cervix
and causes it to dilate or expand. As the
cervix dilates, it also becomes thinner, also
known as effacement. Once the cervix is
completely dilated to 10 centimeters, the
next stage is ready to begin.
The second stage of labor is the
expulsion stage. Normally, the head
of the baby will appear first, referred
to as crowning. In some cases the
baby’s buttocks will appear first, this
is known as breech presentation. This
stage results in the delivery of the
The cessation of menstruation is called menopause. This
natural biological process usually occurs in women between
the ages of 40 and 55. Menopause also indicates the end of
fertility for a female. A woman has not officially said to have
gone through menopause until it has been one year since her
Some signs and symptoms include:
Increased abdominal fat
Loss of breast fullness
Treatments for Menopause
There are not really any treatments for
menopause itself. However there can be
medications prescribed to alleviate the
signs and symptoms. The method most
used is hormone therapy.
Hormone therapy, or estrogen therapy is
used to help lessen the hot flashes, which
are the main complaint females have
Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
One of the longest terms used in
medical terminology refers to the
removal of the uterus, cervix, ovaries,
and fallopian tubes. The term is total
abdominal hysterectomy or bilateral
They can be removed by an incision
in the abdomen, or through an
incision in the vagina.
Reasons to get a Hysterectomy
Persistent vaginal bleeding.
Chronic pelvic pain.
Adverse reaction to anesthesia
Damage to your urinary tract, bladder,
rectum or other pelvic structures during
surgery, which may require further
Early onset of menopause
After the hysterectomy the female will
no longer have menstrual periods,
and therefore will not be able to bare
The female will most likely feel
complete relief from the symptoms
and reasons she needed the
procedure in the first place.
Medical Terminology. A Living
Language. Fourth Edition. Bonnie F.
Fremgen & Suzanne S. Frucht.