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Reproductive system

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  • 1. Reproductive System By: Nadia Hernandez
  • 2. The Three Stages of Labor and Delivery are the…
    • The first stage is referred to as the dilation stage. This is when the uterine muscle contracts strongly to expel the fetus. During this process the fetus presses on the cervix and causes it to dilate or expand. As the cervix dilates, it also becomes thinner, also known as effacement. Once the cervix is completely dilated to 10 centimeters, the next stage is ready to begin.
  • 3. Dilation Stage…
  • 4. Expulsion Stage
    • The second stage of labor is the expulsion stage. Normally, the head of the baby will appear first, referred to as crowning. In some cases the baby’s buttocks will appear first, this is known as breech presentation. This stage results in the delivery of the baby.
  • 5. Expulsion Stage…
  • 6. Placental Stage
    • The last stage of labor is the placental stage. Immediately after delivering the child, the uterus continues to contract, causing the placenta to be expelled through the vagina.
  • 7. Placental Stage…
  • 8. Menopause
    • The cessation of menstruation is called menopause. This natural biological process usually occurs in women between the ages of 40 and 55. Menopause also indicates the end of fertility for a female. A woman has not officially said to have gone through menopause until it has been one year since her last menstruation.
    • Some signs and symptoms include:
    • Irregular periods
    • Decreased fertility
    • Vaginal dryness
    • Hot flashes
    • Sleep disturbances
    • Mood swings
    • Increased abdominal fat
    • Thinning hair
    • Loss of breast fullness
  • 9. Treatments for Menopause
    • There are not really any treatments for menopause itself. However there can be medications prescribed to alleviate the signs and symptoms. The method most used is hormone therapy.
    • Hormone therapy, or estrogen therapy is used to help lessen the hot flashes, which are the main complaint females have during menopause.
  • 10. Total Abdominal Hysterectomy
    • One of the longest terms used in medical terminology refers to the removal of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. The term is total abdominal hysterectomy or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.
    • They can be removed by an incision in the abdomen, or through an incision in the vagina.
  • 11. Reasons to get a Hysterectomy
    • Gynecologic cancer.
    • Fibroids.
    • Endometriosis.
    • Uterine prolapse.
    • Persistent vaginal bleeding.
    • Chronic pelvic pain.
  • 12. Risks
    • Blood clots
    • Infection
    • Excessive bleeding
    • Adverse reaction to anesthesia
    • Damage to your urinary tract, bladder, rectum or other pelvic structures during surgery, which may require further surgical repair
    • Early onset of menopause
    • Rarely, death
  • 13. Post-Hysterectomy
    • After the hysterectomy the female will no longer have menstrual periods, and therefore will not be able to bare children.
    • The female will most likely feel complete relief from the symptoms and reasons she needed the procedure in the first place.
  • 14. References
    • Medical Terminology. A Living Language. Fourth Edition. Bonnie F. Fremgen & Suzanne S. Frucht.
    • http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hysterectomy/MY00163
    • www.google.com/stagesoflaboranddelivery