This is a presentation I did recently to Secondary School Children as part of the Singapore Science festival. Realized that its both easy and also difficult to explain the technology and benefits of solar energy to school children.
The Energy Research Institute @ NTU (ERI@N) focuses on the areas of sustainable energy, energy efficiency/ infrastructure and socio-economic aspects of energy research. Research activities and considerable expertise in these areas exists within NTU’s research centres and schools. ERI@N provides a unique platform, where the various disciplines such as materials, power electronics and systems, biological, physical, social sciences, as well as humanities and business communities interact to explore new solutions to a host of issues including energy generation, harnessing, storage, distribution, efficiency, as well as impact on climate change and global warming.The Institute and its research centres have considerable expertise and strength in areas of fuel cells, wind & tidal energy, charge storage devices, photovoltaics, microgrids and smart energy systems, and collectively provide an integrated set of expertise from materials design & synthesis, device fabrication and modeling, and systems integration and optimization. Major facilities includes 3 cleanrooms for microfabrication, complete facilities for solar cells, charge storage, fuel cells fabrication and characterization, advanced materials synthesis and characterisation (TEMs/FESEM/XRD/FIB/ surface analysis).
Solar energy has been harnessed by mankind for a long time but the technological developments have been rather slow to evolve. Along with the benefits of using solar energy as a clean and renewable source of meeting our energy needs, there are several challenges such as large land requirements and intermittency in production of electricity. The intermittency of solar electricity output in some places poses challenges for electricity grid operation and a "smarter" grid needs to evolve to adjust to this kind of distributed generation. To support the growth and development of solar energy to tackle climate change issues, the support of governments and research institutions is crucial. This talk shall cover the benefits, challenges and technology developments of solar energy and smart grids, and highlight Singapore specific issues related to these future energy technologies. Speaker: Mr Nilesh Jadhav, Senior Scientist, NTU.
Global warming is an inconvenient truth that nobody is willing to accept and own responsibility for. There is clear evidence of the impacts of global warming e.g. artic sea ice melting and impacting the life of millions of species including polar bears.
Energy efficiency can help reducing the rate of increase in energy demand. However renewable energy is required to ensure that energy provided sustainably to the future generations.
Alexander Graham Bell will not recognize the smart phones of today as the evolution of what he invented long ago. Thomas Edison can still recognize the electricity grids, as they look very similar for 100s of years.
Grid operators are always busy forecasting and matching the supply from the generators to the demand from consumers. Over a day, the demand profile of a typical city grid goes from a low base load (mostly at night time) to a high peak demand (mostly during office hours). Supply is managed by “dispatching” generating assets i.e., making them run harder during peak A less costly option is to use “smart” demand-response management to shift flexible loads to a time when more renewable energy is available. This, however, is not straightforward considering the socio-economic aspects of implementation necessary to make it successful, and consumers may not like their appliances being managed by grid operators. Therefore, it is necessary to find a demand response approach, such as variable motor drives, where a resource with sufficient capacity to be partially ramped up and down will have no significant effect on the consumers.
Solar Energy Presentation to School Children
Solar Energy & Smart Grids Nilesh Y. Jadhav Program Manager/Senior Scientist Energy Research Institute @NTUEnergy Research2012 @ NTU 30 July Institute 1
Centre for Centre for Maritime Solar Energy & Centre for Sustainable Energy Energy Research Solar Fuels Centre Electromobility Research (CSER) (CMER) (SEFC) w/ TUMEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
About the presenter Program Manager & Senior Scientist at Energy Research Institute @NTU 13 years diverse industry experience in Singapore and Netherlands Research Interests: Solar Energy, Green Buildings, Electromobility Founder: Avani Consultancy and Marketing Pte Ltd Nationality: Singaporean Founder Solarika.org- the facebook Most Recent Priced Possession: “Solar Cell 158 on Solar Impulse” of Solar Energy email@example.comEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Outline of presentation Introduction to Solar Energy concepts/technology Benefits and challenges of solar energy World Status and achievements Why do we need Smart Grids? Singapore perspective 4Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Energy Challenges World population is expanding rapidly and will likely reach over ~9 billion before stabilizing Energy use is directly proportional to the standard of living Energy demand is skyrocketing Standard methods of producing energy have a limited supply and have unacceptable impacts on the environment 5Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Global Warming: An Inconvenient TruthEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Global Warming- The solution Reduce the use of conventional energy via energy efficiency measures Use Renewable sources of energy such as solar and wind powerEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy – A Bright Idea! Thomas Edison “I’d put my money on the sun and solar energy. What a source of power! I hope we don’t have to wait ‘til oil and coal run out before we tackle that.” “Solar” is the Latin word for “sun” – and it’s a powerful source of energy. In fact, the sunlight that shines on the Earth in just one hour could meet world energy demand for an entire year!Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy – The most abundant ! No other energy source compares to the energy potential of solar.Energy Research Institute @ NTU 9
Solar Energy harnessing technologies Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Thermal ConcentrationConcentrated Solar Power (CSP) Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV)Energy Research Institute @ NTU
How Does Solar Heating Work?Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Thermal Energy Water Heating CookingEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
How Does Solar PV – Electricity Work Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert light energy directly into electricity. Commonly known as “solar cells.”Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Evolution of PV materials Nanosolar Iowa Thin Film Tech Munich airport (BP Solar) EPV SOlar ERSOL • bulk crystalline Silicon • a-Si, CdTe, CIGS, CZTS • DSSC • high cost • thin film, lower cost • organic and nanomaterials • rigid substrate • possibility of printing • extremely thin (<100nm) • rooftop, solar field • building façade, window coating • printable Cost and versatilityEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Such systems use lenses or mirrors (“reflectors”) and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight onto a small area (“receivers”).Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Introduction to Solar Energy Concepts/Technology YouTube video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NDZzAIcCQLQEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Benefits and Challenges Of Solar Energy 17Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Benefits The energy from the Sun is the most abundant form of energy available at all times. Suns energy is there to stay and its not diminishing like the reserves of fossil fuel.Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Benefits Zero emissions No noise pollution No risks of explosion, fire and chemicals Low maintenance No running costs (energy is ‘free’) Independently installedEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
And the challenges… o not available at night o requires a lot of land o high initial investment o intermittentEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
World Status and Achievements of Solar Energy 21Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar PV Costs: Forecast 22Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar PV Costs: Approaching Grid Parity 23Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Installed World CapacityEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Installed World CapacityEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar PV Market Players China has dominated the Solar Manufacturing market Top 10 manufacturers control ~30% of the market Still Quite a Fragmented marketEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy Achievements Germany makes 50% electricity by Solar a reality ! 25th May 2012Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy Achievements Largest Solar Boat Went around the world (60,000 km) Only on Solar Power!Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy Achievements SOLAR IMPULSE Flew an overnight flight (26 hours, reached a maximum altitude of 8,700 m)Energy Research Institute @ NTU Only on Solar Power!
Singapore Scenario 30Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Singapore Energy Needs 80% of our electricity is produced by burning ‘natural gas’, which is imported from Indonesia and Malaysia Highly reliable and robust electricity grid (Low interruption frequency) Energy Demand is growing and we are sometimes quoted as the highest carbon dioxide emitting country per capita 31Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Installations in Singapore Total Installations: ~2.5 MWp (65 nos.) Largest installation: 500 kWp (Resort World Sentosa) HDB Installations: 650 kWp (30 nos.) Electricity Production =14-16% For more information, see: 32Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Singapore Solar Energy Interests • EDB hosted Clean Energy Research Program (CERP) is focused on Solar • Solar Energy Research Institute (SERIS) for R&D on solar along with Energy Research Institute @ NTU • Attracted world’s top integrated solar company REC (S$ 3 billion investment in phase-1) • Zero Energy Building fully powered by solar energy 33Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Singapore specific issues Diffused sunlight due to cloud cover: reduces PV efficiency Temperature of PV modules up to 65 0C: reduces PV efficiency Sun passes directly overhead: best place is on roof-top Grid connected PV systems >1MW have to apply for wholesaler license from EMA, >10 MW apply for generator license Momentary restriction on grid integrated solar power to 350MW 34Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Why do we need Smart Grids? 35Energy Research Institute @ NTU
The Smart Grids story Thomas Edison Alexander Graham Bell Early Inventor of Electric Grids Inventor of Telephone 36Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Smart Grids + Communication Power plant to grid operator Grid operator to utility services Utility services to consumers Electricity Grid Consumers to Appliances 37Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Possibilities with a Smart Grid Data driven decision making Controlling electricity use in real time Choosing your source of power from utilities Integrating Renewables Integrating electric vehicles 38Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Smart Grid: Enabling the renewable era YouTube Video link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8cM4WfZ_Wg 39Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Solar Energy is Intermittent (on and off) Store it in a battery $$$$$ Or increase back-up 40Energy Research Institute @ NTU
Smart Grids initiative in Singapore Installing Smart Meters at NTU Campus and others Communication technology tests Home automation systems demo Intelligent Energy Systems Project Courtesy: EMAEnergy Research Institute @ NTU
Thank You For much more information and connections visit: http://Solarika.org Facebook.com/solarika twitter.com/solarika_org 42Energy Research Institute @ NTU