Csf seminar

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cerebrospinal fluid biochemistry and alteration in various diseased states, including method of collection

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Csf seminar

  1. 1. CSF: Chemistry and clinical significance Presented by: Dr. Nilesh Chandra Moderator: Dr. Archana
  2. 2. Objectives of the discussion: • CSF production and circulation • Normal CSF values and pressures • Functions of CSF • CSF Analysis- Biochemical, Microbiological and Pathological, including disease markers • Precautions and Contraindications to CSF analysis/Lumbar puncture • Hydrocephalus
  3. 3. HISTORY • First report of existence of CSF – 17th century B.C. • Hippocrates – 4th B.C. • Galen discovered ventricular cavities – 2 A.D. • Vesalius – watery humour – 16th centuryA.D. • Magendie performed first tap of CSF in 1825.
  4. 4. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): •Liquor cerebrospinalis: clear, colorless fluid •occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord. •It acts as a "cushion" or buffer for the cortex, providing a basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. •It is produced in the choroid plexus.
  5. 5. Intracranial volumetric distribution of cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and brain parenchyma
  6. 6. Amount: •The CSF is produced at a rate of 500 ml/day. •The brain can contain only 135 to 150 ml •The CSF turn over is about 3.7 times a day.
  7. 7. Nervous System Compartment Volume of CSF (ml) Cranial Subarachnoid Space 100 Spinal subarachnoid Space 25 Lateral Ventricular Horns 25-30 Third Ventricle 2-3 Fourth Ventricle 2-3 Volumetric distribution of cerebrospinal fluid
  8. 8. Circulation: •Produced by modified ependymal cells (approx. 50-70%), remainder is formed around blood vessels, & along ventricular walls. •Circulates from the lateral ventricles to the Interventricular foramen, Third ventricle, Cerebral aqueduct, Fourth ventricle, Median aperture and Lateral apertures, Subarachnoid space over brain and spinal cord. •CSF is reabsorbed into venous sinus blood via arachnoid granulations.
  9. 9. Schematic Presentation Of the CSF production And circulation sites
  10. 10. MRI showing pulsation of CSF
  11. 11. CSF Pressures: •CSF pressure, as measured by lumbar puncture (LP), is 10-18 cmH2O (with the patient lying on the side) •20-30cmH2O with the patient sitting up. •In newborns, CSF pressure ranges from 8 to 10 cmH2O. •When lying down, CSF pressure as estimated by lumbar puncture is similar to the intracranial pressure. •There are quantitative differences in the distributions of a number of proteins in the CSF.
  12. 12. Functions: CSF serves four primary purposes: •Buoyancy: The actual mass of human brain: 1400 g; net weight of the brain suspended in CSF: 25 g •Protection: CSF protects the brain tissue from injury when jolted or hit. •Chemical stability: CSF flows throughout the inner ventricular system in the brain, is absorbed back into the bloodstream, rinsing the metabolic waste from the central nervous system through the blood-brain barrier. •Prevention of brain ischemia
  13. 13. Normal Values for Adults (Lumbar CSF) Opening pressure 50–200 mm H2O CSF (range in literature) Color Colorless Turbidity Crystal clear Mononuclear cells <5 per mm 3 Polymorphonuclear leukocytes 0 Total protein 22–38 mg/dl (mean from literature) Range 9–58 mg/dl (mean ± 2.0 SD Glucose 60–80% of blood glucose
  14. 14. Reference ranges for CSF constituents Substance Lower limit Upper limit Unit Corresponds to % of that in blood plasma RBCs n/a 0/ negative cells/µL or cells/mm3 WBCs 0 3 cells/µL cells/mm3 pH 7.28 7.32 (unitless) PCO2 44 50 mmHg 5.9 6.7 kPa PO2 40 44 mmHg 5.3 5.9 kPa Chloride 115 130[ mmol/L >100% Glucose 50 80 mg/dL ~60% 2.2, 2.8 3.9, 4.4 mmol/L Protein 15 40, 45 mg/dL ~1%
  15. 15. Reference ranges for ions and other molecules in CSF Substance Lower limit Upper limit Unit Corresponds to % of that in plasma Osmolality 280 300 mmol/L Sodium 135 150 mmol/L Potassium 2.6[ 3.0 mmol/L Calcium 1.00 1.40 mmol/L ~50% Creatinine 50 110 µmol/L Phosphorus 0.4 0.6 µmol/L Urea 3.0 6.5 mmol/L
  16. 16. Blood Brain Barrier • Brain capillaries show no fenestrations or pinocytotic (transportation) vesicles and have tight junctions that almost fuse adjacent cells. This anatomy creates the blood-brain barrier (BBB). • The BBB separates plasma from the interstitial space of the CNS and affects in a critical fashion the traffic of molecules in and out of the brain. • Lipophilic compounds cross the BBB easier than hydrophilic ones do; small lipophilic molecules diffuse freely. • Some hydrophilic compounds enter the brain with the help of transporters;larger molecules enter via receptor-mediated endocytosis. • The BBB protects the brain from toxic substances but impedes also the entry of drugs. • Hypertonic stimuli and chemical substances including glutamate and certain cytokines can open the BBB. • HIE and inflammatory mediators produced in sepsis disrupt the BBB.
  17. 17. Clarity: • The normal CSF is crystal clear. • The occurrence of pleocytosis: usual reason for cloudy fluid. • 200 white cells/cmm can be present without altering clarity. • Over 500 white cells/cmm usually produces cloudiness. • Red cell concentrations between 500 and 6000 per cmm can cause the fluid to appear cloudy, while concentrations of over 6000 give a grossly bloody appearance. • A markedly elevated protein can also alter the clarity • The clarity of the fluid is of little clinical use, except to provide an immediate indication of abnormality of the CSF. A very useful point to remember is that a large number of cells can be present without affecting the clarity.
  18. 18. Analysis of Xanthochromic CSF Technique Compare CSF with a similar volume of water in an identical tube; look down the longitudinal axis of the tube, against a white background; ask the ward clerk to see if there is any difference in the two tubes. Pigments seen in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) Oxyhemoglobin Pink or orange color; released into CSF in 2 hours after SAH, due to RBC lysis; may be released within 30 minutes if RBC greater than 150,000/mm 3 ; maximum color in 36 hours, disappears in 7 to 10 days; cerebrospinal fluid must be examined immediately after the LP, since oxyhemoglobin can be produced by lysis of RBC in the test tube. Bilirubin Produces the yellow pigment, or xanthochromia of CSF; produced in vivo by the conversion of free hemoglobin by macrophages and other leptomeningeal cells; not seen for 10 to 12 hours after the hemorrhage; reaches a maximum in 48 hours, and persists 2 to 4 hours.
  19. 19. Other causes of xanthochromia Protein Protein over 150 mg/dl produces xanthochroma, the intensity paralleling the amount of protein RBCs RBC over 100,000/mm 3 produce xanthochromia as a result of serum brought with them Jaundice Serum bilirubin of 15 mg/dl produces xanthochromia; lower levels will do so when elevated protein is present; the level of serum bilirubin that produces xanthochromia appears to be quite variable Carotene Hypercarotenemia in food faddists produces xanthochromia Others Subdural hematomas, trauma, and clots in other locations will produce xanthochromia WBCs The WBC/RBC ratio is similar to that of the plasma in traumatic taps and fresh SAH; a few days old SAHwill produce a chemical meningitis, elevating the number of WBC. Glucose CSF glucose can be decreased (10 to 50 mg/dl) in SAH present 4 to 7 days Protein Each 1000 RBC min raises CSF protein 1.5 mg/dl Traumatic tap Tubes 1 to 3 show decreasing RBC; supernate is colorless if it is examined within 30 minutes, provided the conditions listed above are not present; on rare occasions patients with SAH have decreased cells from tubes 1 to 3, perhaps due to layering of blood in a recumbent patient; the color of the supernate should provide the answer in this rare event; if there is any doubt, immediately do another lumbar puncture in a different interspace; abnormal CSF from a traumatic tap can persist at least 5 days, and even longer.
  20. 20. Proteins: • CSF proteins are derived from serum proteins with the exception of the trace proteins and some beta globulins. • Serum proteins enter the CSF by means of pinocytosis. • Clinical usefulness of CSF proteins is presently limited to the measurement and characterization of total protein and IgG. • 3 pathological conditions cause abnormalities of the CSF proteins: – Increased entry of plasma proteins due to increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier. – Local synthesis of proteins within the central nervous system. Clinical interest is limited to IgG currently. – Impaired resorption of CSF proteins by the arachnoid villi. • Elevated CSF total protein is highly suggestive of neurologic disease. • Total protein over 500 mg/dl is seen in meningitis, cord tumor with spinal block, and bloody CSF. • Each 1000 RBC/mm3 raises the CSF protein 1.5 mg/dl.
  21. 21. The Total Protein Content of the Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid from 4157 Patients Increased Diagnosis Tot al Normal (45 mg/dl or less) Slightly (45–75 mg/dl) Moderate ly (75– 100 mg/dl) Greatly (100–500 mg/dl) Very greatly (500–3600 mg/dl) Highes t (mg/dl ) Lowes t (mg/dl ) Averag e Purulent meningitis 157 3 7 12 100 35 2220 21 418 Tuberculous meningitis 253 9 30 37 172 12 1142 25 200 Poliomyelitis 158 74 44 16 24 0 366 12 70 Neurosyphilis 890 412 258 102 117 1 4200 15 68 Brain tumor 182 56 45 22 57 2 1920 15 115 Cord tumor 36 5 4 3 14 10 3600 40 425 Brain abscess 33 9 15 3 6 0 288 16 69 Aseptic meningitis 81 37 20 7 17 0 400 11 77 Multiple sclerosis 151 102 36 9 4 0 133 13 43
  22. 22. The Total Protein Content of the Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid from 4157 Patients Increased Diagnosis Total Normal (45 mg/dl or less) Slightly (45–75 mg/dl) Moderately (75–100 mg/dl) Greatly (100–500 mg/dl) V.greatly (500–3600 mg/dl) Highest (mg/dl) Lowest (mg/dl) Avg. Polyneuritis 211 107 33 17 44 10 1430 15 74 Epilepsy (idiopathic) 793 710 80 2 1 0 200 7 31 Cerebral thrombosis 300 199 78 13 10 0 267 17 46 Cerebral hemorrhage 247 34 41 32 95 45 2110 19 270 Uremia 53 31 13 8 1 0 143 19 57 Myxedema 51 12 28 3 8 0 242 30 71 Cerebral trauma† 474 255 84 43 73 19 1820 10 100 Acute alcoholism 87 80 5 2 0 0 88 13 32 Total 4157 2128 821 331 743 134
  23. 23. IgG in CSF: • IgG concentration in the CSF is normally 4.6 ± 1.9 mg/dl. • It is the principal immunoglobulin in the CSF. • Local synthesis within the central nervous system occurs in a variety of inflammatory disorders: multiple sclerosis, neurosyphilis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, progressive rubella encephalitis, viral meningoencephalitides, sarcoidosis, etc. • IgG can be characterized by agar gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing for the identification of oligoclonal banding in addition to quantification. Up to 90% of cases of confirmed multiple sclerosis have elevated gamma globulin and/or oligoclonal bands. Oligoclonal bands represent a qualitative change in IgG. • The appearance of oligoclonal bands in the CSF in the absence of similar bands in the serum is an indication of gamma globulin production in the central nervous system even when quantified levels of gamma globulin are normal. • The difficulty in assessing IgG levels in the CSF lies in distinguishing whether elevated levels are due to increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier, or whether there is local synthesis in the central nervous system.
  24. 24. Fractionation of CSF Protein Mechanism of elevated CSF protein CSF/serum albumin ratio CSF/serum IgG ratio CSF IgG/albumin index Obstruction to CSF circulation Elevated Elevated Normal Increased blood–CSF barrier permeability Elevated Elevated Normal Increased CNS protein synthesis Normal Elevated Elevated Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein is increased by increased permeability of the blood–CSF barrier or increased CNS protein synthesis. Concurrent measurement of albumin and IgG in both CSF and serum by immunochemical methods is useful in distinguishing these two mechanisms. Since albumin is neither synthesized nor metabolized intrathecally, increased CSF albumin relative to serum albumin reflects loss of functional integrity of the blood–CSF barrier. Synthesis of immunoglobin does occur in the CNS; therefore, increased CSF IgG relative to serum reflects either permeability changes or increased CNS synthesis. Comparing the CSF/serum IgG and CSF serum albumin ratios provides a specific index of local immunoglobin synthesis since the IgG ratio is corrected for permeability changes. Local synthesis of IgG occurs in demyelinating and some chronic inflammatory CNS diseases. IgG produced within the CNS tends to have restricted heterogeneity and can be detected as oligoclonal banding on agar gel protein electrophoresis. Oligoclonal banding occurs in the same spectrum of diseases as elevated CSF IgG/albumin index; however, electrophoretic detection is considered a more sensitive marker for multiple sclerosis.
  25. 25. Glucose: • The usual CSF glucose is 60 to 80% of the plasma glucose. • Glucose is utilized for energy by cellular elements close to the CSF; this is the principal means of glucose removal. • The most common cause of lowered CSF glucose (hypoglycorrhachia) is meningitis: bacterial, tuberculous, fungal, amebic, acute syphilitic, chemical, and certain of the viral meningitides (mumps, herpes simplex, and herpes zoster). • Lowered CSF glucose occurs in about 15% of SAH, reaching a nadir 4 to 8 days after the bleed. • Meningeal carcinomatosis also produces hypoglycorrhachia. A large variety of tumors have been implicated. Cytologic examination of the fluid is often the key to diagnosis. • Other causes of lowered CSF glucose include sarcoidosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis, and rheumatoid meningitis.
  26. 26. LUMBAR PUNCTURE • Lumbar puncture (LP) is usually a safe procedure. • Major complications: extremely uncommon, include – cerebral herniation – injury to the spinal cord or nerve roots – hemorrhage – infection. • Minor complications: greater frequency, include – Backache – post-LP headache – radicular pain or numbness.
  27. 27. Proper positioning of a patient in the lateral decubitus position. Note that the shoulders and hips are in a vertical plane; the torso is perpendicular to the bed. [From RP Simon et al (eds): Clinical Neurology, 7th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 2009.] Positioning and site of Lumbar puncture
  28. 28. Contraindications to Lumbar Puncture: • Infection in the skin overlying the access site(A) • Papilledema • Bleeding diathesis • Severe pulmonary disease or respiratory difficulty • An altered level of consciousness. • Patients with a focal neurologic deficit. • A new-onset seizure. • An immunocompromised state.
  29. 29. 4 vials of CSF
  30. 30. Collection of CSF from lumbar Puncture for analysis
  31. 31. Description of CSF Types Fluid type WBC Predominant cell tvpr Glucose Protein (mg/dl) Normal <5 All mononuclear Normal 40–80 mg/dl or at least 40% of the simultaneous blood sugar <50 A 500–20,000 90% PMLs Low in most cases 100–700 B 25–500 Mononuclear (PMLs early) Low but may be normal 50–500 C 5–1,000 Mononuclear (PMLs early) Normal, but rarely quite low < 100
  32. 32. Differential Diagnosis of Infectious Causes of CSF Pleocytosis Treatable by specific antimicrobial agents • Type A fluid: – Bacterial meningitis (pneumococcus, meningococcus, hemophilus, streptococcus, listeria, etc.) – Ruptured brain abscess – Amebic meningoencephalitis • Type B fluid – Granulomatous meningitis – Tuberculous – Fungal • Type C fluid – Parameningeal infection – Brain abscess – Subdural abscess – Cerebral epidural abscess – Cerebral thrombophlebitis – Spinal epidural abscess – Otitis/sinusitis – Retropharyngeal abscess
  33. 33. Differential Diagnosis (contd.) Miscellaneous infections: • Listeria meningitis, Rickettsial meningitis • Syphilis • Leptospirosis • Cerebral malaria • Trichinosis • Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis • Toxic encephalopathy (associated with systemic bacterial infection) • Viral infection (Herpes hominis type I encephalitis) Not treatable by specific antimicrobial agents: Type C fluid • Postinfectious and postvaccinal encephalitis • Viral meningitis (mumps, coxsackie, echovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, arboviruses, and others)
  34. 34. Differential Diagnosis of Noninfectious Causes of CSF Pleocytosis Chemical meningitis Myelography Spinal anesthesia Intrathecal medication Ingestion of mercury or arsenic Vasculitis Subarachnoid hemorrhage Behcet's syndrome Lead encephalopathy Sarcoid (may produce type B CSF) Tumor (leukemia most common; glucose can drop to zero) Seizure activity (must diagnose only if other possibilities are ruled out and if pleocytosis is minimal and rapidly clears)
  35. 35. CSF Comparison In Various Infections Cause Appearance Polymorpho nuclear cell Lymphocyte Protein Glucose Pyogenic bacterial meningitis Yellowish, turbid Markedly increased Slightly increased or Normal Markedly increased Decreased Viral meningitis Clear fluid Slightly increased or Normal Markedly increased Slightly increased or Normal Normal Tuberculous meningitis Yellowish and viscous Slightly increased or Normal Markedly increased Increased Decreased Fungal meningitis Yellowish and viscous Slightly increased or Normal Markedly increased Slightly increased or Normal Normal or decreased
  36. 36. Causes of Brain edema Vasogenic Cellular (cytotoxic) Interstitial (hydrocephalic) Pathogenesis Increased capillary permeability Cellular swelling— glial, neuronal, endothelial Increased brain fluid due to block of CSF absorption Location of edema Chiefly white matter Gray and white matter Chiefly periventricular white matter in hydrocephalus Edema fluid composition Plasma filtrate including plasma proteins Increased intracellular water and sodium Cerebrospinal fluid Extracellular fluid volume Increased Decreased Increased Capillary permeability to large molecules (RISA, insulin) Increased Normal Normal radioisotope iodinated (125I) serum albumin (RISA)
  37. 37. Causes of Brain edema (contd.) Vasogenic Cellular (cytotoxic) Interstitial (hydrocephalic) Clinical disorders Brain tumor, abscess, infarction, trauma, hemorrhage, lead encephalopathy Hypoxia, hypo- osmolality due to water intoxication, etc. Obstructive hydrocephalus Pseudotumor (?) Disequilibrium syndromes Ischemia Ischemia Purulent meningitis (granulocytic edema) Purulent meningitis (granulocytic edema) Purulent meningitis (granulocytic edema) Reye's syndrome EEG changes Focal slowing common Generalized slowing EEG often normal
  38. 38. Brain Edema: Role of drugs Vasogenic Cellular (cytotoxic) Interstitial (hydrocephalic) Therapeutic effects Steroids Beneficial in brain tumor, abscess Not effective (? Reye's syndrome) Uncertain effectiveness (? Pseudotumor, ? meningitis) Osmotherapy Reduces volume of normal brain tissue only, acutely Reduces brain volume acutely in hypo-osmolality Rarely useful Acetazolamide ? Effect No direct effect Minor usefulness Furosemide ? Effect No direct effect Minor usefulness
  39. 39. CSF Biomarkers • Alzheimer’s disease (AD): – Beta amyloid type Aβ42 is decreased probably because it is deposited in plaques and is not available in a diffusible form. – Total-tau (t-tau) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) are both increased in AD. • Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease: – Elevated CSF 14-3-3 in a patient with progressive dementia of less than 2 years’ duration is considered a strong indicator of CJD. A negative 14-3-3 test does not rule out CJD. – Total-tau (t-tau) increased.
  40. 40. SUMMARY • General physiology: production, distribution, circulation; normal pressure/biochemical/cellular values, cause for difference from plasma. • Pathological changes: Pressure, clarity, colour, proteins (esp.IgG), glucose. • Obtaining, collecting, analysing and storing a CSF sample. • CSF types (based on pleocytosis), D/D based on types of CSF. • CSF picture and comparison in various infectious categories. • CSF biomarkers
  41. 41. REFERENCES: • Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. 3rd edition.Walker HK, Hall WD, Hurst JW, editors.Boston: Butterworths; 1990. • PATHOLOGY 425 CEREBROSPINAL FLUID [CSF] at the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of British Columbia. By Dr. G.P. Bondy. Retrieved November 2011 • Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease. • Department of Chemical Pathology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, in turn citing: Roberts WL et al. Reference Information for the Clinical Laboratory. In Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 4th edn. Burtis CA, Ashwood ER and Bruns DE eds. Elsevier Saunders 2006; 2251 – 2318 • Ballabh P, Braun A, Nedergaard M. The blood-brain barrier: an overview. Structure, regulation, and clinical implications. Neurobiol Dis 2004;16:1-13. PubMed • Owens T, Bechman I, Engelhardt B. Neurovascular Spaces and the Two Steps to Neuroinflammation. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2008; 67:1113-21. PubMed • Aluise CD, Sowell RA, Butterfield DA. Peptides and Proteins in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid as Biomarkers for the Prediction, Diagnosis, and Monitoring of Therapeutic Efficacy of Alzheimer’s disease. Biochim Biophys Acta 2008;1782:549-58 PubMed.
  42. 42. Selected examples of promising molecular markers for targeted detection Disease Marker Glioma IL-13 Breast Cancer HER2 Lung Cancer HER2 Malignant Melanoma 9.2.27 Genitourinary Tumors (Ovarian) HER2 Head and Neck Cancers EGFR Leukemia CD20, CD52 Lymphoma CD20, CD52

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